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Lead in Lipstick

Lead in Lipstick Overview: Policy, Toxic Substances in Cosmetics, Tests, Recommendations, Stakeholder Initiatives & More

The raging controversy of lead in cosmetics, particularly lipstick, is a two decades old worldwide multi-stakeholders debate among international bodies, government health regulatory agencies, women, health, and environment advocates, scientists and academics, the media, consumers, and cosmetic manufacturers. The internet and the academe provide convenient platforms for these engagements and the protracted discussion over this issue on the cumulative/long-term effects of lead on the health of consumers/users of lipstick and other cosmetic and personal care products.

Researches conducted by consumer, health, women, and environmental groups, independent refereed journal publishing academics, and government agencies and findings published by these entities and selectively popularized by media agencies and bloggers and independent non-professional reviewers have failed, thus far, to resolve the issue. Urban legend spinners have popularized the issue extensively and fueled the raging debate with sensationalized popular versions of the findings of many researches alongside recommendations to use home-grown lead testing methods.

This discussion focuses on the debate over the presence of lead in cosmetics and personal care products, particularly, lipstick. In this context, existing legislations and policy declarations and articulations of international health agencies and government regulatory bodies and their perceived limitations will be examined within their historical contexts. Independent initiatives of other stakeholders will be analyzed given the disparity of views between advocates for the safe use of cosmetics and government agencies. The most recent scientific researches pertinent to the lead in lipstick issue will be discussed as possible bases of the re-thinking of public policy and the adoption of more effective progressive legislation for the protection of consumer health.

Lead in Lipstick as a Public Issue: An Overview of its Terrain and Contours

Concerns over the presence of  lead in cosmetics, particularly lipsticks trace its origins centuries ago when lead was used as paint for the beautification of the face and people died from this (www.humana.com). The ban of the use of lead  in the manufacture of  paints  because of its toxic properties was instituted  worldwide and in the US in 1978 (www.humana.com) decades ago (www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets).  The  internet is the platform of this debate and the aggressive campaign of consumer advocates for stricter legislation towards the elimination of lead and other toxic metals like aluminum, arsenic, mercury, nickel, beryllium, thallium, selenium, cadmium, chromium, and manganese (www.safecosmetics.org; www.motherjones.com) in the manufacture of  cosmetics, lipstick, and other personal care products (www.safecosmetics.org).

This original text from the FDA website on frequently asked questions (fqa) situates with precision and accuracy the debate over the lead in lipstick issue:

What is FDA’s legal authority over cosmetic safety?

FDA regulates cosmetic safety under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The FD&C Act requires that cosmetics marketed in interstate commerce be safe when used as directed in the labeling or under customary conditions of use. Cosmetics are not subject to pre-market approval by FDA. However, pre-market approval is required for the color additives used in cosmetics (including those in lipsticks), with the exception of coal-tar hair dyes. To learn more, see FDA Authority Over Cosmetics.

Has FDA set limits for lead in cosmetics?

No, FDA has not set limits for lead in cosmetics. FDA has set specifications for lead in color additives used in cosmetics. FDA approval of color additives is based on safety evaluations that consider the color additives’ intended uses and estimated consumer exposure resulting from those uses. FDA-approved color additives are listed in Title 21 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). To learn more about FDA-approved color additives, see Color Additives.

What are FDA’s limits for lead in color additives?

FDA limits lead in color additives to maximum specified levels, typically no more than 20 parts per million (ppm) for color additives approved for use in cosmetics. In addition, the color additives listed under regulations in 21 CFR Parts 74 and 82 are required to be batch-certified by FDA, which includes testing each batch for lead, before they may be used in cosmetics. (www.fda.gov)

 In the 1990s,  a report derived  from the research of a commercial testing laboratory  confirmed the presence of traces of lead in lipstick  (www.fda.org/faq).  Rumors circulated by email in 2003 substantially expanded public awareness and generated strong consumer advocacy  of the lead in lipstick issue in the United States (www.humana.com; www.about.com). The 2007 research which antedates any government initiative on the issue of lead in lipstick  was  conducted by Campaign for Safe Cosmetics (CSC), the largest advocacy group  with partners from the women and environmental sectors. The transcript/summary of this study showed that some lipsticks available in retail outlets contained lead (www.safecosmetics.org).  

The US Food and Drug Administration conducted a scientific study on the lead content of a selection of commercially available lipsticks and confirmed the  presence of the toxic metal (www.fda.gov) . The same study was expanded to four hundred samples in 2010 with Frontier Global Service of Seattle performing the analysis for individual samples (www.fda.gov). The findings  of both FDA studies were  published with the data on the samples and their individual lead content (www.fda.gov). 

FDA Survey Results

Sample # Brand Parent company Lipstick line
Shade #
Shade
Lot #a Lead
(Pb)b
(ppm)
1 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
125
Pink Petal
FF205 7.19
2 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
410
Volcanic
FE259 7.00
3 NARS Shiseido Semi-Matte
1005
Red Lizard
0KAW 4.93
4 Cover Girl Queen
Collection
Procter & Gamble Vibrant Hues Color
Q580
Ruby Remix
9139 4.92
5 NARS Shiseido Semi-Matte
1009
Funny Face
9DLW 4.89
6 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
165
Tickled Pink
FF224 4.45
7 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Intensely Moisturizing Lipcolor
748
Heroic
FD306 4.41
8 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
025
Warm Brick
9098 4.28
9 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
475
Mauve Me
FF201 4.23
10 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
103 c
180808 4.12
11 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
103 c
180808 4.06
12 Revlon Revlon Matte
009
Fabulous Fig
08262 3.32
13 Sonia Kashuk Target Corporation Luxury Lip Color
27
Mauvey
090464_0511
X564A
3.12
14 Avon Avon Beyond Color
558
Mad For Mauve
AR01 3.08
15 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
530
Mauve Amour
FD339 2.87
16 Revlon Revlon ColorStay
375
Ripened Red
09040 2.84
17 Burt’s Bees Clorox Company Lip Shimmer
d
Toffee
1130801 2.81
18 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
631
Luminous Pink
09097 2.81
19 Sonia Kashuk Target Corporation Luxury Lip Color
27
Mauvey
090464_0511
X564A
2.80
20 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
643
Satin Plum
08351 2.77
21 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
595
Iced Plum
5353 2.74
22 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
101
c
180808 2.71
23 Fashion Fair Johnson Publishing Company Forever Matte
8207
Forever Gold
H2 2.68
24 Avon Avon Beyond Color
541
Uptown Pink Rose
KL9 2.59
25 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
035
Smokey Rose
8261 2.56
26 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Incredifull Lipcolor
924
Ripe Raspberry
8226S1 2.52
27 Revlon Revlon Renewist
130
Mauvellous
08043 2.52
28 Revlon Revlon ColorStay Soft & Smooth
200
Natural Cashmere
09233 2.44
29 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
435
Cherry Brandy
5258 2.42
30 Revlon Revlon Renewist
010
Naturally Revealing
08077 2.40
31 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
701
Rosy Wine
5102 2.28
32 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Design Metallic
d
Work It!
18G101 2.28
33 M.A.C Estée Lauder Frost
d
Metal Maven
AC9 2.28
34 Cover Girl Queen Collection Procter & Gamble Vibrant Hues Color
Q582
Cherry Bomb
7290 2.27
35 Stargazer Stargazer Fantasy
d
Crystal Fuschia
010306 2.27
36 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
575
Really Red
5251 2.26
37 Revlon Revlon Renewist
160
Plum Luck
07339 2.25
38 Burt’s Bees Clorox Company Lip Shimmer
d
Guava
3000901 2.24
39 Revlon Revlon ColorStay Soft & Smooth
360
Pink Indulgence
09141 2.24
40 Avon Avon Beyond Color
549
Pink Lemonade
KW9 2.23
41 Cover Girl Queen Collection Procter & Gamble Vibrant Hues Color
Q430
Toast Of The Town
7297 2.22
42 Almay Revlon Hydracolor
545
Pink Pearl
9986-20 2.21
43 Fashion Fair Johnson Publishing Company Finishings
8907
Berry Bourgeois
8900-70 2.18
44 Revlon Revlon Matte
006
Really Red
09259 2.12
45 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014337
Sheer Blush
MT10 2.09
46 Jafra Jafra Cosmetics International Ultra Creamy
814
Pure Blush
9233 2.08
47 M.A.C Estée Lauder Amplified Creme
d
Show Orchid
AC9 2.08
48 Estée Lauder Prescriptives Estée Lauder Colorscope Shimmer
24
Apricot Blossom
A97 2.07
49 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
565
Rose Cashmere
9104 2.00
50 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
015
Bronzed Peach
8345 2.00
51 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
830
Naked Ambition
FD274 2.00
52 Rimmel London Coty Lasting Finish
058
Drop Of Sherry
9056 1.98
53 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
130
c
141207 1.98
54 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014346
Garnetfrost
RH11 1.96
55 Avon Avon Beyond Color
557
Cantaloupe
KD91 1.95
56 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
565
Rose Cashmere
9104 1.94
57 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
335
Get Nutty
FF293 1.94
58 Cover Girl Queen Collection Procter & Gamble Vibrant Hues Color
Q435
Cherrylicious
7297 1.93
59 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
505
Iceblue Pink
9356 1.92
60 Revlon Revlon Moon Drops
260
Heather Frost
2Y1 1.91
61 Clarins Clarins USA Rouge Appeal
09
Strawberry Smoothie
HC 1.88
62 Revlon Revlon ColorStay Soft & Smooth
225
Pecan Pleasure
09296 1.88
63 Rimmel London Coty Lasting Finish
058
Drop Of Sherry
9056 1.88
64 BeneFit LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Pearl
LP23
Bold & Beautiful
3L1A 1.86
65 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
120
Apricot Fantasy
09154 1.85
66 NARS Shiseido Shimmer 1021 Venice 9XAD 1.84
67 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
450
Gentlemen Prefer Pink
09069 1.84
68 Almay Revlon Hydracolor
510
Rosewood
07005 1.82
69 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014343
Mocha Freeze
MT13 1.82
70 Revlon Revlon Moon Drops Frost
450
Amethyst Smoke
09328 1.81
71 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
760
Silverstone
FF152 1.80
72 Revlon Revlon Renewist
060
Perfect Pastel
07087 1.80
73 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color
116
Candy
AA9 1.78
74 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
465
Madison Mauve
FF340 1.78
75 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
560
Fabulous Fuchsia
9264 1.76
76 Elizabeth Arden Elizabeth Arden Color Intrigue Effects
19
Cocoa Bronze Pearl
8KAK 1.76
77 Revlon Revlon ColorStay Soft & Smooth
315
Juicy Plum
09257 1.75
78 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
420
Blushed
09260 1.75
79 Jafra Jafra Cosmetics International Ultra Creamy
815
Pure Ruby
9234 1.74
80 Avon Avon Beyond Color
555
Raisinette
LN9 1.73
81 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
520
Eternally Mauve
FF016 1.72
82 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
A78
Wine On Ice
WD1361 1.71
83 Revlon Revlon Moon Drops Frost
700
Crystal Cut Coral
07080 1.70
84 Almay Revlon Hydracolor
615
Plum Pearl
06340 1.69
85 Gabriel Gabriel Cosmetics Color
d
Copper Glaze
9226 1.69
86 Gabriel Gabriel Cosmetics Color
d
Copper Glaze
9226 1.69
87 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
417
Peach Fuzz
FF324 1.69
88 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
400
Captivating Coral
FE012 1.69
89 NARS Shiseido Sheer
1081
Beautiful Liar
8WGD 1.69
90 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
620
Mica
FF135 1.63
91 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
205
Nearly There
FF319 1.61
92 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
205
Champagne On Ice
09309 1.61
93 M.A.C Estée Lauder Frost
d
Bronzilla
AB9 1.57
94 Stargazer Stargazer Glitter
d
Green
0708 1.57
95 Dior LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Rouge Dior
365
VIP Pink
9T03 1.56
96 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
520
Wine With Everything
10062 1.55
97 Revlon Revlon Moon Drops Frost
335
Copperglaze Brown
08206 1.54
98 BeneFit LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Full-Finish
LP83
Sassy-frass
8E2A 1.53
99 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
104
c
010606 1.53
100 Estée Lauder Prescriptives Estée Lauder Colorscope Sparkle
51
Bronze Lustre
A79 1.50
101 M.A.C Estée Lauder Glaze
d
Frou
A10 1.49
102 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014358
Frosted Rose
RR22 1.49
103 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
12
Sugar Plum Ice
WB1591 1.48
104 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Mineral Power
100
Pink Pearl
FE190 1.47
105 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
615
Summer Sunset
FF275 1.46
106 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
520
Wine With Everything
10062 1.46
107 Avon Avon Beyond Color
551
Peach Daiquiri
KP9 1.45
108 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
500
Undeniably Mauve
FF023 1.45
109 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
740
Really Rose
FF243 1.44
110 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
G280
Mocha Ice
WD1421 1.41
111 Almay Revlon Hydracolor
600
Dusk
681B 1.40
112 Avon Avon Perfect Wear
P003
Forever Pink
SBK01 1.39
113 Mary Kay Mary Kay Tinted Lip Balm
025748
Blush
TC26 1.39
114 Colorganics Colorganics Hemp Organics
d
Purple Haze
e 1.38
115 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
805
Golden Splendor
FF364 1.38
116 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
117
c
180808 1.38
117 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder All Day
ADL 39
Frosted Apricot
AA9 1.37
118 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Mineral Power
250
Chestnut
FE158 1.37
119 Colorganics Colorganics Hemp Organics
d
Purple Haze
e 1.36
120 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color
1E0
Classic Red
AA9 1.35
121 Almay Revlon Ideal Lipcolor
240
Plum
086724-16 1.34
122 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Fever Shine
d
Natural Glimmer
18F302 1.34
123 M.A.C Estée Lauder Glaze
d
Bubbles
AC9 1.34
124 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
03
Metallic Sand
B78 1.33
125 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color
125
Melon
A69 1.32
126 Revlon Revlon Renewist
170
Full Bodied Wine
08040 1.32
127 Estée Lauder Origins Estée Lauder Flower Fusion
21
Calla Lily
A39 1.31
128 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Fever
d
Enticing Rose
18E104 1.31
129 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014379
Paradise Pink
MK31 1.30
130 Revlon Revlon Moon Drops Creme
585
Persian Melon
08156 1.28
131 Elizabeth Arden Elizabeth Arden Ceramide Plump Perfect 27 Perfect Amethyst 9CA 1.27
132 Almay Revlon Hydracolor
520
Sienna
651X 1.26
133 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014349
Golden
MR26 1.26
134 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
24
Nearly Violet
AB8 1.24
135 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Matte
82
Berry Berry
A89 1.24
136 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Sparkling
d
Adorned
8345ZA 1.23
137 Almay Revlon Hydracolor
520
Sienna
651X 1.22
138 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
300
Crimson Joy
FF203 1.21
139 Chanel Chanel Rouge Hydrabase
134
Wild Tulip
0121 1.20
140 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Le Rouge Absolu
d
Beige Cashmere
18F200 1.20
141 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Heidi Klum Perfect
d
Exotic Spice
9223ZA 1.19
142 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
09
Citrus Rose
A89 1.18
143 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Design Sheen
d
Vintage Rose
18G203 1.18
144 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
300
Coffee Bean
09110 1.18
145 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Sheer Gloss Stick
d
Vulnerable
X139 1.18
146 Fashion Fair Johnson Publishing Company Lipstick
8091
Crystal Crimson
B3 1.17
147 Iman Cosmetics Iman Cosmetics Luxury Moisturizing
004
Paprika
9541 1.17
148 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
A3
Ice Bloom
B79 1.15
149 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014340
Pink Shimmer
RH30 1.15
150 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Too Faced
d
Free Love
ABO 1.15
151 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Shine C2 Heather Moon A79 1.13
152 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Fever
d
Beige Everyday
18DO02 1.13
153 Almay Revlon Ideal Lipcolor
210
Coffee
86724-04 1.12
154 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Design Metallic
d
Poodle Skirt
18F902 1.11
155 Chanel Chanel Aqualumière
74
Como
9601 1.10
156 Stargazer Stargazer Fantasy
d
Crystal Pink
010306 1.10
157 Clarins Clarins USA Lip Colour Tint
19
Wild Berry
F5 1.08
158 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
800
In The Buff
FF218 1.08
159 M.A.C Estée Lauder Frost
d
Bronze Shimmer
AB9 1.08
160 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U421
Berry Berry Nice
SKC91 1.07
161 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
27
After Party
AB9 1.07
162 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L‘Absolu Rouge
d
Champagne
18G101 1.07
163 Revlon Revlon Moon Drops Creme
590
Lilac Champagne
08217 1.06
164 Chanel Chanel Aqualumière
31
Waikiki
1302 1.05
165 Estée Lauder Prescriptives Estée Lauder Colorscope Cream
35
Currant Affair
AC7 1.04
166 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
835
Bronze Coin
FF149 1.04
167 Revlon Revlon Beyond Natural
050
Spice
821B 1.04
168 M.A.C Estée Lauder Frost
d
Frenzy
A10 1.03
169 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
635
Very Cherry
FF341 1.03
170 Stargazer Stargazer Glitter
d
Fuschia
1009 1.03
171 BeneFit LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Silky-Finish
LP57
Candy Store
9K1A 1.02
172 Iman Cosmetics Iman Cosmetics Luxury Lipstain
203
Rapture
9634 1.02
173 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014382
Pink Satin
MV11 1.02
174 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Double Wear
DWL 01
Stay Rose
A59 1.01
175 Clinique Estée Lauder Butter Shine
441
Adore U
AB9 1.00
176 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Le Rouge Absolu
d
Pink Eclipse
7K016 1.00
177 M.A.C Estée Lauder Frost
d
Bombshell
A99 1.00
178 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014376
Dusty Rose
MM20 0.97
179 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Double Wear
DWL 03
Stay Pinkberry
A79 0.96
180 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L‘Absolu Rouge
d
Amande Sucrée
18G100 0.96
181 Bobbi Brown Estée Lauder Metallic Lip Color
1
Baby Peach
AA9 0.95
182 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
A0
Gingerfrost
A10 0.95
183 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
London Life
AB9 0.95
184 NARS Shiseido Sheer
1078
Manhunt
7FLD 0.95
185 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
657
Fuchsia Fusion
09167 0.95
186 Stargazer Stargazer Glitter
d
Pink
0708 0.95
187 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG L 10
Radiant Rose
A89 0.94
188 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U421
Berry Berry Nice
SKC91 0.93
189 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
310
Plum Sable
WC1871 0.93
190 Rimmel London Coty Lasting Finish
170
Alarm
7246 0.93
191 M.A.C Estée Lauder Baroque Boudoir
d
Baroque Boudoir
A99 0.92
192 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014355
Raisinberry
RF29 0.92
193 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
111
c
010306 0.92
194 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Shine
15
All Heart
A89 0.91
195 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Fever
d
Rock Icon Fuchsia
7D178 0.91
196 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014352
Apricot Glaze
RD19 0.91
197 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Color Sensational
325
Cinnamon Stick
FF303 0.91
198 Elizabeth Arden Elizabeth Arden Ceramide Plump Perfect
03
Perfect Currant
9AA1 0.90
199 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
310
Plum Sable
WC1871 0.90
200 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 06
Lush Rose
A88 0.89
201 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
C377
Rose Luster
WD2081 0.89
202 Chanel Chanel Aqualumière
37
Ipanema
1501 0.88
203 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder All Day
ADL 18
Starlit Pink
A10 0.88
204 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Shine
13
Baby Kiss
A89 0.86
205 Elizabeth Arden Elizabeth Arden Color Intrigue Effects
15
Sugarplum Shimmer
K9JA2 0.86
206 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
825
Bronzine
FF236 0.86
207 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014334
Berry Kiss
MV04 0.86
208 Clarins Clarins USA Joli Rouge
703
Ginger
RU 0.85
209 Chanel Chanel Rouge Allure
21
Exotic
2201 0.84
210 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Shine
15
All Heart
A89 0.84
211 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 31
Spiced Coral
A89 0.84
212 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Double Wear
DWL 02
Stay Pink
B49 0.83
213 Mary Kay Mary Kay Tinted Lip Balm
025393
Rose
TF23 0.83
214 Clinique Estée Lauder Butter Shine
426
Perfect Plum
AB9 0.82
215 Dior LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Addict High Shine
750
Runway Red
9Wo1 0.82
216 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
825
Bronzine
FF236 0.82
217 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
754
Sugar Plum
FF245 0.82
218 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Shine
63
Pink Spice
AA9 0.81
219 Stargazer Stargazer Fantasy
d
Crystal Cinnamon
010306 0.81
220 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 31
Spiced Coral
A89 0.80
221 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color Crystal
303
Crystal Pink
AA9 0.80
222 Iman Cosmetics Iman Cosmetics Luxury Moisturizing
001
Wild Thing
9BU3 0.80
223 Mary Kay Mary Kay Tinted Lip Balm
025395
Apricot
TC30 0.80
224 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Design Metallic
d
Copper Desire
18FN11 0.79
225 Bobbi Brown Estée Lauder Metallic Lip Color
10
Ruby
AC9 0.78
226 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 07
Rich Berry
A98 0.78
227 Estée Lauder Origins Estée Lauder Flower Fusion
04
Marigold
A59 0.78
228 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 63
Divine Red
A68 0.77
229 Burt’s Bees Clorox Company Lip Shimmer
d
Champagne
3530901 0.76
230 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Intensely Moisturizing Lipcolor
858
Charming
FD033 0.76
231 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
A55
Orchid Frost
WC3491 0.76
232 Cover Girl Queen Collection Procter & Gamble Vibrant Hues Shine
Q930
Shiny Parfait
8113U2 0.75
233 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 33
Apricot Sun
A39 0.75
234 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014325
Black Cherry
RH24 0.75
235 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
A4
Angelic
A10 0.74
236 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 15
Woodland Berry
B79 0.74
237 M.A.C Estée Lauder Slimshine
d
Rock Out
AB7 0.74
238 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme 014373 Pink Melon RF27 0.74
239 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Fever Shine
d
Simmering
18DD00 0.73
240 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
590
Blushing Berry
FF306 0.73
241 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014373
Pink Melon
RF27 0.72
242 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
115
c
180808 0.72
243 Chanel Chanel Aqualumière
98
Grenada
1901 0.70
244 Mary Kay Mary Kay Tinted Lip Balm
025396
Poppy
TD01 0.70
245 Rimmel London Coty Lasting Finish
180
Jet Set Red
9295 0.70
246 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L‘Absolu Rouge
d
Absolute Rouge
18G200 0.69
247 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L‘Absolu Rouge
d
Absolute Rouge
18G200 0.69
248 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
850
Extreme Spice
FF222 0.69
249 M.A.C Estée Lauder Satin
d
Viva Glam II
A20 0.69
250 Elizabeth Arden Elizabeth Arden Exceptional
74
Marigold
8PA3 0.68
251 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl
616
Wink For Pink
09162 0.68
252 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Signature
SIG 36
Black Cherry
A99 0.67
253 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
820
Chocolate Obsession
FF216 0.66
254 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Matte Cream
d
Siren
76 0.66
255 Rimmel London Coty Lasting Finish
038
In Vogue
9279 0.64
256 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014361
Toffee
RF19 0.63
257 Revlon Revlon Beyond Natural
060
Berry
951 0.63
258 M.A.C Estée Lauder Glaze
d
Shitaki
AB9 0.62
259 M.A.C Estée Lauder Slimshine
d
Intimidate
A69 0.62
260 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014331
Whipped Berries
RH28 0.61
261 Stargazer Stargazer Fantasy
d
Crystal Copper
010306 0.61
262 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color
1CM
Plumberry
A78 0.60
263 M.A.C Estée Lauder Cremesheen
d
On Hold
AC9 0.60
264 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014367
Tanned
MR08 0.60
265 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014385
Hibiscus
MK30 0.60
266 Chanel Chanel Rouge Allure
70
Adorable
1801 0.59
267 Chanel Chanel Rouge Allure
70
Adorable
1801 0.59
268 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
C410
Plum Wine
FF050A 0.59
269 Avon Avon Perfect Wear
P203
Enduring Wine
SBB01 0.58
270 Avon Avon Perfect Wear
P005
Forever Fuschia
SKK91 0.58
271 Chanel Chanel Rouge Allure
75
Amusing
1401 0.58
272 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Shine
08
Golden Brandy
A99 0.58
273 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
33
Raspberry Glace
A10 0.57
274 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014328
Apple Berry
RK21 0.57
275 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U101
Instant Mocha
SLG91 0.56
276 M.A.C Estée Lauder Frost
d
Angel
A10 0.56
277 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U2
Wink
SJF91 0.55
278 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Mineral Power
350
Plum Wine
FE184 0.55
279 Estée Lauder Prescriptives Estée Lauder Lipshine
09
Sunkissed
A69 0.54
280 Chanel Chanel Rouge Allure
14
Passion
2201 0.53
281 M.A.C Estée Lauder Glaze
d
Riveting
AC9 0.53
282 Clarins Clarins USA Joli Rouge Perfect
700
Cedar Red
6N 0.52
283 Clinique Estée Lauder Butter Shine
414
Fresh Watermelon
AA9 0.52
284 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L’Absolu Rouge
d
Rose Mythique
18G101 0.52
285 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Milan Mode
AC8 0.52
286 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
E190
Royal Red
FE354A 0.52
287 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L’Absolu Rouge
d
Rich Cashmere
18G101 0.51
288 Chanel Chanel Rouge Allure
10
Attitude
1001 0.50
289 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color Crystal
91
Elizabeth Pink
A89 0.50
290 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color Crystal
306
Crystal Rose
A79 0.50
291 Avon Avon Perfect Wear
P304
Sunkissed Ginger
SBC91 0.49
292 Cover Girl Queen Collection Procter & Gamble Vibrant Hues Shine
Q920
Shiny Port Wine
8170U2 0.49
293 BeneFit LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Full-Finish
LP84
Do Tell
8F1A 0.48
294 Estée Lauder Prescriptives Estée Lauder Lipshine
06
Raspberry Ice
A49 0.48
295 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U206
Wineberry
SJL91 0.47
296 Iman Cosmetics Iman Cosmetics Luxury Moisturizing
006
Black Brandy
8AK1 0.47
297 Wet ‘n’ Wild Markwins International Mega Last Lip Color
901B
Think Pink
931201 0.47
298 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
A5
Heartfelt
A10 0.46
299 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color Crystal
3C8
Crystal Beige
B48 0.45
300 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Sophisto
AC9 0.45
301 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Creme
640
Blackberry
09308 0.44
302 Shiseido Shiseido Shimmering
SL7
C
FPKD 0.44
303 Burt’s Bees Clorox Company Lip Shimmer
d
Raisin
3070901 0.43
304 Clinique Estée Lauder Butter Shine
409
Ambrosia
A89 0.43
305 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Shine
17
Watermelon
A89 0.43
306 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L’Absolu Rouge
d
Pink Sapphire
18EO02 0.43
307 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Charismatic
AB9 0.41
308 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Laugh A Lot
AB9 0.41
309 Bobbi Brown Estée Lauder Creamy Lip Color
33
Retro Pink
AC9 0.40
310 Clinique Estée Lauder Butter Shine
427
Crushed Grape
A99 0.40
311 Cover Girl Queen Collection Procter & Gamble Vibrant Hues Shine
Q940
Shiny Wine
8320U2 0.40
312 M.A.C Estée Lauder Satin
d
Empowered
A99 0.40
313 Clinique Estée Lauder Butter Shine
433
Apple Brandy
A89 0.39
314 Estée Lauder Origins Estée Lauder Rain and Shine
15
Pink Sparkle
A39 0.39
315 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Utter Fun
A79 0.39
316 M.A.C Estée Lauder Amplified Creme
d
Cosmo
AC9 0.39
317 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Moisture Extreme
G140
Peach Mocha
WC2261 0.39
318 Shiseido Shiseido Shimmering
SL16
c
NNGS 0.39
319 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color
1A3
Maraschino
A89 0.38
320 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U103
Rosewine
SLI91 0.37
321 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Utter Fun
A79 0.37
322 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Patisserie
AA9 0.37
323 Clarins Clarins USA Sun Sheer
05
Sunset Cinnamon
M1 0.35
324 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Perfect
d
Showstopper
9BZ1 0.35
325 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder All Day
ADL 19
Rich and Rosey
AA9 0.33
326 Shiseido Shiseido Shimmering
SL10
c
NLEL 0.32
327 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
119
c
17210 0.32
328 Wet ‘n’ Wild Markwins International Mega Last Lip Color
914C
Mocha-licious
931301 0.32
329 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
19
Extreme Pink
A99 0.31
330 Dior LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Addict Lipcolor
773
Scarlet Siren
9X02 0.31
331 M.A.C Estée Lauder Amplified Creme
d
Dubonnet
A20 0.31
332 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U423
Red 2000
SJL91 0.30
333 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
310
Fired Up
FD268 0.30
334 M.A.C Estée Lauder Satin
d
Retro
AB9 0.30
335 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
108
c
090808 0.30
336 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
14
Cider Berry
A49 0.29
337 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Le Rouge Absolu
d
Rhum Riche
18F100 0.29
338 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Endless
720
Real Raisin
FF232 0.29
339 Mary Kay Mary Kay Creme
014364
Shell
RF31 0.29
340 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
030
It’s Your Mauve
9346 0.28
341 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Volume Seduction XL
405
Peachy Flush
WE020 0.28
342 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Creme
135
Chocolate Velvet
09236 0.28
343 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
05
Go Fig
A59 0.27
344 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Design
d
Red Stiletto
18G101 0.27
345 M.A.C Estée Lauder Cremesheen
d
Creme In Your Coffee
A89 0.27
346 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Design Cream
d
All Done Up
18E218 0.26
347 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last Soft Matte
18
Vintage Wine
A99 0.25
348 M.A.C Estée Lauder Slimshine
d
Urgent!
A49 0.25
349 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Plumful
AA9 0.24
350 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
A6
Rose Aglow
A10 0.23
351 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Fever Shine
d
Tempt Me
18DN26 0.23
352 M.A.C Estée Lauder Amplified Creme
d
Morange
AC9 0.23
353 Maybelline L’Oréal USA Volume Seduction XL
605
Seductively Nude
WF197 0.23
354 NARS Shiseido Satin
1060
Afghan Red
8UDD 0.23
355 Bobbi Brown Estée Lauder Creamy Lip Color
5
Blue Raspberry
AC9 0.22
356 Clinique Estée Lauder Butter Shine
432
Cranberry Cream
A89 0.22
357 Wet ‘n’ Wild Markwins International Mega Last Lip Color
916D
Ravin’ Raisin
933001 0.22
358 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U250
Cherry Jubilee
SJT91 0.21
359 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
04
A Different Grape
AB9 0.20
360 Estée Lauder Origins Estée Lauder Rain and Shine
22
Razzleberry
A10 0.20
361 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Le Rouge Absolu
d
Valentine
18ED00 0.20
362 Lancôme L’Oréal USA L‘Absolu Rouge
d
Berry Noir
18FO00 0.20
363 M.A.C Estée Lauder Satin
d
Cyber
AC9 0.20
364 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U420
Poppy Love
SJZ91 0.18
365 Cover Girl Procter & Gamble Continuous Color
795
Toasted Almond
9230 0.18
366 Clinique Estée Lauder High Impact
02
Nude Beach
A89 0.17
367 Lancôme L’Oréal USA Color Design Cream
d
All Done Up
18E218 0.17
368 Elizabeth Arden Elizabeth Arden Exceptional
30
Fiesta
9AA 0.16
369 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Infallible
20
Gardenia
FE093B 0.16
370 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Desire
A89 0.15
371 M.A.C Dsquared2 Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Blood Red
A69 0.15
372 Stargazer Stargazer Lipstick
110
c
121008 0.15
373 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
108
Gilded Pink
FF339 0.14
374 Iman Cosmetics Iman Cosmetics Luxury Lipstain
208
Strip Tease
8CS1 0.13
375 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Spice It Up!
A10 0.13
376 Wet ‘n’ Wild Markwins International Mega Last Lip Color
910D
Red Velvet
932301 0.13
377 Avon Avon Ultra Color Rich
U516
Tuscan Russet
SL291 0.12
378 Bobbi Brown Estée Lauder Lip Color
57
Hot Cocoa
A38 0.12
379 M.A.C Estée Lauder Lustre
d
Lady Bug
AC9 0.12
380 M.A.C Estée Lauder Matte
d
Viva Glam I
A20 0.11
381 BeneFit LVMH Perfums & Cosmetics Full-Finish
LP87
La La Land
8F1A 0.08
382 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Riche
231
Raspberries
FD111 0.08
383 M.A.C Estée Lauder Amplified Creme
d
Impassioned
A20 0.08
384 M.A.C Estée Lauder Matte
d
Chili
A10 0.08
385 Clinique Estée Lauder Different
53
Guava Stain
AC9 0.07
386 Clinique Estée Lauder Long Last
02
Sugar Bean
A99 0.07
387 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Pout
d
Pink Champagne
9217ZA 0.07
388 Bobbi Brown Estée Lauder Lip Color
8
Blackberry
AA9 0.06
389 Bobbi Brown Estée Lauder Lip Color
8
Blackberry
AA9 0.06
390 Fashion Fair Johnson Publishing Company Lipstick
8018
Magenta Mist
H1 0.06
391 Fashion Fair Johnson Publishing Company Lipstick
8014
Earth Red
H1 0.05
392 Iman Cosmetics Iman Cosmetics Luxury Moisturizing
005
Iman Red
J2 0.05
393 M.A.C Estée Lauder Matte
d
Lady Danger
A10 0.05
394 Lori Anne Mood Magic Mood
d
Yellow
e 0.05
395 Estée Lauder Estée Lauder Pure Color
161
Pink Parfait
BA9 0.04
396 M.A.C Estée Lauder Satin
d
M.A.C Red
A10 0.03
397 Lori Anne Mood Magic Mood
d
Blue
e 0.03
398 Clinique Estée Lauder Almost
06
Black Honey
A79 <0.026
399 L’Oréal L’Oréal USA Colour Juice
240
Cherry On Top
FF082 <0.026
400 Wet’n’ Wild Markwins International Mega Mixers Lipbalm
281
Bahama Mama
927101 <0.026
          Average   1.11

Source: http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productsingredients/products/ucm137224.htm

Policy Articulations on Lead in Lipstick Issue

Policy articulation on the issue of  the presence of lead in cosmetics and lipstick in particular is international and national in magnitude and in scope. The United Nations World Health Organization, for instance, maintains a comprehensive stand on the minimal use or total elimination of lead for household and personal care products including toys because of its long-term toxicity which is harmful for both adults and children ( www.who.int/mediacentre). WHO takes pride in the success of the worldwide campaign for the total elimination of lead in paint in the 1970s (www.who.int/mediacentre). The European Union banned the use of more than a hundred toxic substances and chemicals, both natural and synthetic and United Kingdom strictly enforces this ban and closely supervises the manufacture and sale of cosmetics, perfumery, and related products (www.cancerresearchuk.org). The Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (CTPA) helps monitor the safety measures contained in national and EC legislations which ban the use of lead cosmetics and hair coloring (www.cancerresearchuk.org). 

Through  federal and state legislation  channeled for implementation through Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the United States government, in principle, articulates a general policy of toleration for lead and similar toxic substances in cosmetics and personal care products  within limits not hazardous to health (www.fda.gov). This is evident in  the findings and conclusions of the FDA in the context of the completed research on the 2009 research on lead in lipstick and its expanded survey in 2010. Both survey results articulated the FDA (and the official government) conclusion that while lead was present in the samples tested, the agency concluded that lead was present in quantities that were not harmful to human health (www.fda.gov). The American Cancer Society concurred with these findings and the FDA conclusion (www.about.com).  Similar findings are resonated by EPA in relation to the impact of the presence of these toxic substances in the environment in the context of the provisions of the  1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (www.about.com; www.alternet.org).      

These ambiguous policy articulations based on scientifically validated researches based in the United States generated negative criticism nationwide and increased furor among stakeholders who have intensified their campaign for a total ban of toxic substances in cosmetics, particularly lead in lipstick (www.safecosmetics.org; www.motherjones.com;www.edition.cnn.com). A doze of sensationalism, the  selective reporting of official  FDA findings, conclusion, and articulations, and the popularization of  home-grown  methods like the gold-ring (lead) testing  are mainstream fodder for  expanding public  involvement in the issue through the internet (www.goodhousekeeping.com; www.about.com; www.edition,cnn,com; www.snopes.com).  

A Closer View of Lead as a Toxic Substance in Cosmetics and Lipstick in particular

The frenzy of lead in lipstick advocacy and the increasing media alarmist near-hysteria  reportage on the issue are  based on certain areas of consensus regarding the negative long-term  effects of the presence of lead and other substances in varying degrees of toxicity in cosmetics and personal care products. This is harmful for adult users and children who are vulnerable and are exposed to these substances.  Many popular and research-based (of non-validated methodologies) articles nevertheless converge on certain points of consensus regarding the harmful effects of these substances.  

The National Safety Council released an undated  factsheet/fqa on lead poisoning focusing on its prospective victims, its sources of exposure within the context of the household, its health effects, minimizing its hazards, prevention of exposure, and the existing legislations supporting its management, control, and elimination (www.nsc.org/news; www.humana.com). The NSC defines lead as “a highly toxic substance” that affects the health of both adults and children with millions of victims, specifically, children under six years of age (www.nsc.or/news; www.who.int/mediacentre) .

Exposure at home is the setting of lead poisoning. Deteriorating house paints, dust surfaces,  painted  ceramic decorations and utensils, bare soil, cosmetics, personal care products, air, drinking water, food etc. are sources of this microscopic substance that accumulates in the blood (www.nsc.org/news). Hence, the biggest culprit and source of lead poisoning is house paint which in its state of deterioration contaminates its surroundings (www.nsc.org/news) . Contamination is extensive particularly for structures built before 1978 when legislation ordering the elimination of lead in the manufacture of  paints was passed (www.nsc.org/news; www.who.int/medicentre). On the other hand, the utilities within a household might be sources of lead present in batteries, water pipes, cables, and wires (www.nsc.org/news).  NSC advises those undertaking renovation at home to control and manage possible air-borne contamination that affects soil, water, food, and household articles including children’s toys (www.nsc.org/news).

The health effects of lead poisoning among children are mental deficiency and retardation, slow physical growth, behavioral problems, IQ reduction, kidney problems among others. Adult victims with excessive lead content in their blood develop health problems with  high blood pressure, nerve disorders, muscle pains, fertility, emotional instability among others (www.nsc.org/news: www.who.int/mediacentre; www.humana.com).  The National Health Institutes, on the other hand,  includes the following  in its list of symptoms for lead poisoning : abdominal pain, cramps, anemia , irritability, headaches, insomnia, low energy, constipation, etc. (www.humana.com). These health problems might be rooted in workplace conditions and occupational hazards that relate to construction, manufacturing, transportation, mining and manufacturing (www.nsc.org.news). Moreover, a fetus might be affected by the presence of lead in the blood stream of a pregnant woman (www.nsc.org/news).

Most importantly, recent scientific research explains that  no level of lead exposure which used to be measured “in micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood” is safe: Traditionally set at 10 micrograms for children, the scale  was lowered to  5 micrograms or less  following the results of a study published in a New England journal which found lead harmful at lower levels (www.nsc.org/news; www.edition.cnn.com;www.safecosmetics,org ) .

Given these, National Safety Council  highly recommends that household routine follow certain guidelines to prevent and/or  eliminate  lead contamination and poisoning. The removal of pre-1978 paint and the regular  maintenance of house paint, the conduct of lead testing procedures by professionals or off-the-counter formulas, and the cleaning of the house of all dust are suggested as fundamental steps in eliminating lead sources at home (www.nsc.org/news). Checking lead content of water sources by Environmental Protection Agency experts  is particularly important (www.nsc.org/news). A good healthy diet containing “iron, calcium, and zinc” consisting of  eggs, greens, legumes, dairy products,  lean  red meat  and raisins and the avoidance of fatty food  substantially reduce lead content in the body (www.nsc.org/news) . Thus, a  healthy diet and the maintenance of  cleanliness and hygiene prevent lead exposure.  Reminders regarding the use of painted ceramics, storing wine in glass containers, and covering bare soil are included by NSC in this lead exposure prevention-reduction list (www.nsc.org).

Federal legislation to eliminate the toxicity of lead is focused on lead paint for structures.  The Lead-Based  Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 also known as Title X (ten) covers the rent or sale of homes built before 1978 in terms of the elimination of  lead and addressed to regulating and enforcing agencies, real estate brokers, and property owners. This landmark legislation ensures lead-free habitation for the citizens through the enforcement of regulations that eliminates lead as a hazard in homes.

Unfortunately, NSC affirms  through non-inclusion that no legislation of this magnitude in the area of cosmetics and personal care products has been passed. Hence, consumers are continuously exposed to lead contained in these items which are part of the routine of their daily lives.

The presence of lead is problematic enough in terms of its effects as a health hazard. However, lead’s presence in cosmetics is always complicated by the presence of other metals. Environmental Defence, a Canada based organization and partner of Campaign for Safe Cosmetics published the results of a research project that included the metal testing of cosmetics (including lipstick) used regularly by six women and available  in  retail outlets (www.safecosmetics.org). This metal testing was focused on the quest for  four metals of “most” concern which are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics in Canada as health hazards and for their  toxicity: cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury. Four others,  beryllium, nickel, selenium, and thallium,  are metals of concern and are banned as intentional ingredients in Canada except nickel(www.safecosmetics.org). The study affirms the health dangers posed by the accumulation of these metals in the human body over the long-term: the weakening of the cardio-vascular, skeletal, respiratory, immunity and other systems, emotional problems, cancer, renal problems, hair loss among others (www.safecosmetics.org). The findings of this research project confirm the presence of heavy metals in cosmetic products in problematic quantities:

Facts Various Makeup Tests

  • Seven of the eight metals of concern were found in 49 different face makeup items.
    On average, products contained two of the four metals of most concern and four of the eight metals of concern.
  • Only one product, Annabelle Mineral Pigment Dust (Solar), was found to not contain a single metal of most concern. All products contained at least two metals of concern.
  • Benefit Benetint Pocket Pal (RedTint) contained the most metals of concern with seven of the eight metals detected.
  • The Benefit Benetint lip gloss also contained the highest level of lead at 110 ppm, over 10 times higher than the 10 ppm limit set out in the Health Canada Draft Guidance on Heavy Metal Impurities in Cosmetics.
  • Five products—one foundation, two mascaras, and two lipsticks/tints/glosses—contained the second-most metals of concern as six of the eight metals were found.
  • None of the heavy metals were listed on the product label. (Environmental Defence, p 3)

The above summary of findings shows that despite the ban of metals in Canada, manufacturers ignore the health dangers posed by these cosmetics and openly distribute these products in the market. The fact that no information is provided by manufacturers to warn the public of the hazardous risk of consuming these products is a clear violation of public policy.

RESULTS AT A GLANCE

HEAVY  METAL

% OF ITEMS WITH DETECTABLE METAL

Arsenic

20%

Cadmium

51%

Lead

96%

Mercury

0%

Nickel 

100%

Beryllium

61%

Thallium

61%

Selenium

14%

(ENVIRONMENTAL DEFENCE testing of 49 different face makeup items from a total of 35 different face makeup products, p.4)

The above table shows the quantitative results of scientific testing for heavy metals in cosmetic products found in retail outlets show the heavy concentration of lead (at 96%) and Cadmium (at 51%), labeled as metals of “most concern” and Nickel (at 100%), Beryllium (at 61%), and Thallium (at 61%), labeled as metals of “concern” in this research study.

This report also affirms scientific findings found in other non-Canadian researches that in the instance of lead in cosmetics, particularly lipstick and related products, no level of exposure is safe which rationalizes the Canadian ban of this metal as an intentional ingredient. Given these, the study propose the following:

Recommendations for The Cosmetics Use

People have the right to know what is in their products and to make their own decisions regarding safety.

Building on ENVIRONMENTAL DEFENCE, Campaign for Safe Cosmetics and Environmental Working Group’s prior report (Not So Sexy) on harmful substances in fragrances, ENVIRONMENTALDEFENCE has concluded that stronger federal regulations are needed to give consumers better peace of mind regarding their cosmetics.

These improvements should include:

1) GUIDANCE ON HEAVY METAL IMPURITIES IN COSMETICS. Canada should take cumulative exposure into account and improve the draft guidelines on impurities in cosmetics to better reflect what is technically avoidable, then officially adopt them without delay. These guide lines have been in the draft stage since March 2009.

2) A EUROPEAN-STYLE BAN ON HARMFUL AND RISKY SUBSTANCES. Canada currently has a general ban on harmful substances in cosmetics and a cautious list (“the Hotlist”) of substances it has singled out as concerning. Europe, on the other hand, has 5 annexes to their Cosmetics Regulation, classifying thousands of substances as permitted for certain uses (e.g. preservatives, UV filtration, colouring agents), restricted, or banned outright in cosmetics.

Canada must follow Europe’s lead and expand the Hotlist to include a ban on all substances banned in the European Union and substances known or suspected to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, reproductive toxicants, developmental toxicants, neurotoxicants, and hormone disruptors.

3) COMPLETE AND PRIOR PUBLIC DISCLOSURE OF MATERIALS IN THE PRODUCTS. Right now, the government doesn’t even have to know what is in cosmetics and personal care products until after they are on store shelves. Even then, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on the kinds of “impurities” found in this study. Manufacturers should be required to disclose all substances, intentional ingredients (including fragrance substances) and unintentional ingredients (including impurities), in their products without exception, and this information should be found on labels and be freely available online before products hit the market. The proposed US Safe Cosmetics Act of 2010 suggests that all ingredients, including those currently protected by trade secret laws (i.e. fragrance)unless protected as a trade secret by other laws, will have to be labeled on cosmetics. However, contaminants will not have to be labeled if present at levels below technically feasible detection limits (US Congress, 2010). It is recommended that Canada take a similar approach.

(HEAVY METAL HAZARD THE HEALTH RISKS OF HIDDEN HEAVY METALS IN FACE MAKEUP 5, 24)

In the context of the lead in lipstick issue, this research project report articulated the concern that the presence of  lead in lipstick is more of a  health hazard in contrast to other topically applied cosmetics (ie foundation, blusher, eye-shadows, eye-liners, powders etc.)  because of  the possibility of its ingestion and its multiple application daily (www.motherjones.com; www.safecosmetics.org; www.humana.com). Moreover, studies also show that lip gloss contain the highest concentration of lead among lipstick products (www.fda.gov; www.safecosmetics.org). 

US consumer and safe cosmetics advocates in partnership with environmental and women organizations who are strategic stakeholders in the lead in lipstick issue continue to interrogate government official articulations on this concern in many areas.

One well-worn area of debate is the level of toxicity of lead. Indeed, recent scientific studies and articulations from the National Safety Council, the World Health Organization,  the research on Heavy Metal Hazards in Canada , and the publication of the New England journal reject the existence of a  safe toxicity level for lead,  in general, and with special reference to lead content found in cosmetics and lipsticks and related products (www.edition.cnn.com; www.safecosmetics.orgwww.nsc.org; ). Despite these findings, the FDA, as shown by its website articulations, stands   firm in its conclusion based on the 2009 research and the 2010 expanded survey that the lead content found in lipstick samples should not be a source of health concern for consumers (www.fda.gov). A profile of contrasts reveal the finer points of the difference between Canadian and US policies:

However, there is a difference between what is safe and what is technically avoidable. Take lead for instance. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted its own analyses of lead impurities in lipstick that show lead impurities much lower than 10 ppm are feasible. Of the 20 lipsticks tested, the highest amount of lead content was 3.06 ppm and the lowest was a mere 0.09 ppm, while the average was 1.07ppm (US FDA, 2009). Therefore, levels above these should be considered technically avoidable, and Canada’s draft guidelines could and should be lowered to reflect this. According to the above draft Canadian guidelines, manufacturers are only considered able to technically avoid lead levels greater than 10 ppm in cosmetics. Health Canada considers this and the other limits to provide a high level of protection to susceptible subpopulations (e.g., children) (Health Canada, 2009a). But lead levels of 10 ppm or less are not necessarily safe. According to the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (2010), there is no known safe blood lead level; even the current “low” levels of exposure in children areassociated with neurodevelopmental deficits (Bellinger, 2008). The CDC has even gone so far as to recommend that parents avoid using cosmetics on their children that could be contaminated with lead (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). (Heavy Metal Hazard, 20)

Another source of contention are the limitations in the powers bestowed by legislation on FDA with regards to the regulation of  toxic substances found in cosmetics (www.edition.cnn.com). FDA continues to be informed  by an anachronistic law crafted and passed in 1938 which does not include the power to ban toxic substances, to prevent the sale of cosmetics after these have entered the market, and to take measures to ensure the safety of cosmetics before they are sold in the market (www.edition.cnn.com).

Stakeholders Initiatives in the Manufacture of Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products

During the last decade, stakeholder activity and initiatives in the United States and Canada in the context of concerns over lead in lipstick, cosmetics, and other personal care products were frenzied and highly innovative. Converging research findings from the advocacy, manufacturing, academic, and government sectors which affirm the indisputable presence of lead and other health-threatening toxic substances and metals in lipstick, cosmetic, and personal care products have inspired a vigorous movement toward the elimination of this problem.

Thus, safe cosmetic advocates in the United States and Canada seek the  total ban of heavy metals and toxic substances present in cosmetics and personal care products including perfume (www.safecosmetics.com). The template for these  safety measures is the European Union which   effectively manages and controls the  circulation of  health-threatening toxic substances:

A EUROPEAN-STYLE BAN ON HARMFUL AND RISKY SUBSTANCES. Canada currently has a general ban on harmful substances in cosmetics and a cautious list (“the Hotlist”) of substances it has singled out as concerning. Europe, on the other hand, has 5 annexes to their Cosmetics Regulation, classifying thousands of substances as permitted for certain uses (e.g. preservatives, UV filtration, colouring agents), restricted, or banned outright in cosmetics.

Canada must follow Europe’s lead and expand the Hotlist to include a ban on all substances banned in the European Union and substances known or suspected to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, reproductive toxicants, developmental toxicants, neurotoxicants, and hormone disruptors.(Heavy Metal Hazards)

At the same time, the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics is seeking public support for the enactment of  the Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of   to supersede the 1938 legislation which continues to inform the exercise of the  regulatory and other functions of the FDA and the EPA (www.edition,cnn.com). Sharima Rasanayagam, Director of the Breast Cancer Fund clarifies that

The law regulating cosmetics passed Congress in 1938 and has never been updated. The FDA possesses no legal authority to make sure products are safe before they are sold. Nor is the agency empowered to pull dangerous products from store shelves. It’s the Wild West for cosmetics companies, which have very few rules restricting chemical ingredients used in everything from shampoos to lotions to lipsticks. As the contamination of lip products with heavy metals makes it clear, allowing the industry to police itself is not the best idea.

We need the FDA to be empowered by Congress and to take action so women won’t face any health risks when they put on makeup. Cosmetics companies should be required to adhere to a standard for best manufacturing processes to limit metal contamination (www.edition.cnn.com).

This  Safe Cosmetics legislation proposed in  2010 in the House of Representatives and re-introduced in 2011 seeks the passage of a law  to effectively implement the following:

  • restrict or phase out chemicals linked to cancer, birth defects and developmental harm;
  • create a health-based safety standard for cosmetics that includes protections for children, the elderly, workers and other vulnerable populations;
  • close labeling loopholes by requiring full ingredient disclosure on product labels and company websites, including the constituent ingredients of fragrance and salon products;
  • require data-sharing to avoid duplicative testing and encourage alternatives to animal testing; and
  • provide the FDA Office of Cosmetics and Colors the resources it needs to ensure effective oversight of the cosmetics industry, including recall authority for cosmetics (Market Shift Report, 2011, 13).

Harmful Chemicals in Personal Care Products

  • The average American woman uses 12 personal care products a day, resulting in exposure to more than 120 chemicals, many of which are likely linked to cancer, birth defects, asthma, allergies and other health problems. Many of these chemicals end up in our bodies, our breast milk and our children; contaminate drinking water and wildlife; and build up in the food chain.
  • More than 1 in 5 of all personal care products contain chemicals linked to cancer.11
  • As documented in the Campaign report No More Toxic Tub: Getting Contaminants Out of Children’s Bath & Personal Care Products, products often contain hidden carcinogens that are not listed on labels, such as formaldehyde and 1,4 dioxane that are found in children’s bath products.
  • Chemicals with the potential to disrupt hormones are found in a large majority of personal care products. A study of teenage girls found an average of 13 hormone-disrupting cosmetics chemicals – including parabens, phthalates, triclosan and synthetic fragrance musks – in their urine.
  • Dangerous heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and cadmium have been found in a wide variety of cosmetics products, including lip gloss.
    • Campaign product tests documented in the report Not So Sexy: The Health Risks of Secret Chemicals in Fragrance revealed the widespread use of synthetic musks in perfume, cologne and body sprays. Some of the same musks identified in fragrances (Galaxolide and Tonalide) have also been found in the cord blood of newborn babies, as well as in blood, breast milk and body fat. These musks may interfere with normal hormonal functioning (Market Shift Report, 2011, 5).

The unique character of Compact lies in the cooperation and involvement  of numerous  manufacturers who share the concern for  the elimination of toxic substances in cosmetics and personal care products matched only by  the zeal of the consuming public and advocates. Manufacturers’ activities in the context of Compact include extensive research and the quest for appropriate  natural products  and organic substitutes for existing ingredients “of concern” to maintain and enhance  product quality and ensure public health safety at the lowest possible cost (Market Shift, 2011). This is contrasted to the mainstream idea among advocates that the cosmetics and personal care manufacturing industry cannot be trusted to monitor itself based on the resistance of this sector to positively and innovatively respond to public health concerns, particularly lead in lipstick  and their indifference to this call given the reassuring conclusion  of the FDA 2009 and 2010 research findings that the presence of lead in lipstick is no cause for public alarm (www.edition.cnn.com ; www.fda.gov). Another important aspect of manufacturer’s involvement in Compact is transparency and accountability. Full disclosure of ingredients and their quantities, accurate labeling of perfumes, cosmetics, and personal care products, and the inclusion of warnings regarding risks lie at the core of manufacturers’ commitment to Compact.

Compact as a major initiative is a public information and education campaign towards an informed use of cosmetics and personal care products requiring consumer vigilance and monitoring and the use of vital information sources like the Environmental Working Group’s  Skin Deep database which is the largest resource containing safety  guidelines for cosmetic use (Market Shift Report,  2011).

Compact follows a rigid  process to ensure the safety of the users of cosmetic and personal care products:

The Process of Determining Compact Compliance

As part of the Compact, companies were required to enter ingredient information for all their products currently available for sale into EWG’s Skin Deep database. The database provided a mechanism to publicly reflect progress in meeting this pledge. Companies were able to view their status and compliance with each of the provisions by logging into the database. When companies logged into their password-protected “manufacturer’s pages” on Skin Deep, they were able to see each of the six provisions for compliance, along with details about any gaps they needed to address to meet the provisions.

Because the Campaign and many of the Compact signing companies shared the same vision of expanding the market for safer, healthier personal care products, the Campaign worked closely with these companies to identify areas for improvement.

Staff members at EWG verified the information submitted to Skin Deep, and Campaign staff provided Compact signers with technical support and guidance on their efforts to meet the benchmarks for complying with the Compact. Additionally, the companies that entered their data dedicated a great deal of staff time to participating in the process, giving the Campaign feedback on how to improve the process so that it better matched the realities of their businesses and sharing their insight on what was possible in developing safer alternatives for the marketplace.

Tracking the safety of cosmetics products was a complex task. Every product in the Skin Deep database contains anywhere from a few to a few dozen ingredients. Some of the contents are hidden, either through the trademark-protected category of fragrance or as contaminants. In addition, companies were continuously reformulating products or introducing new products to the market, which required them to be constantly updating their ingredient submissions to Skin Deep.

Companies that met Compact requirements maintained up-to-date product listings in EWG’s Skin Deep database. EWG maintained up-to-date information on chemical hazards, ingredient safety assessments, and the regulatory status of ingredients in other countries, to allow for a complete review of Compact signer products against the criteria laid out in the Compact (Market Shift Report 2011, 11).

Compact for Safe Cosmetics Compliance Requirements

Compliance Requirement

Description

Compliance Measured

Comply with the EU
Cosmetics Directive.

Companies were required to comply with the requirements of the EU Cosmetics Directive upon signing the Compact.

Companies indicated they met this requirement upon signing. Products entered into Skin Deep were flagged if they contained ingredients with use restrictions in the EU.

Disclose all ingredients. 

Companies were required to disclose all ingredients, including constituent ingredients of fragrance and other proprietary formulations.

The Skin Deep database flagged the use of proprietary ingredients. Companies were
required to disclose the constituents of their proprietary ingredients in order to reach compliance. In some cases, suppliers of proprietary ingredients would not allow
manufacturers to disclose constituents of proprietary ingredients. In order to achieve
compliance, these companies were required to submit a non-disclosure letter from the supplier.

Publish and regularly update product information in EWG’s Skin Deep database.

Companies were required to enter product details for all the cosmetics and personal care products they sold into EWG’s Skin Deep database and to update their product listings annually.

In Skin Deep, companies were required to indicate the number of products they manufactured and the date of their last review. If the number of products indicated matched the number entered, and companies had both logged in and certified the date of their
last product update, then companies were considered compliant.

Comply with ingredient prohibitions and restrictions under the Compact for Safe Cosmetics and substitute ingredients of concern with safer alternatives.

Companies were required to comply with restrictions and prohibitions outlined by the Campaign. These restrictions were a compilation of international restrictions for ingredients used cosmetics and personal care products.

Companies using ingredients deemed as prohibited were required to reformulate any products using those ingredients. Companies with restricted ingredients were required to either provide documentation proving that
their product met the specific restriction or reformulate their products so that they would
comply with the restrictions.

Substantiate the safety of all products and ingredients with publicly available data.

Companies were required to provide data that indicated the safety of their products and/or ingredients. This data could include any materials the company used to substantiate the safety of their products prior to putting them on the market. Examples include
results of ingredient and/or product testing and Material Safety Data Sheets.

After a one-year trial period, this compliance requirement was discontinued.

Participate in the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics.

Companies were required to participate in the Campaign.

Activities that fulfilled this provision included logging into Skin Deep and participating in Campaign meetings. 21 Campaign for Safe Cosmetics

(Market Shift Report, 2011, Appendix D, 20)

Compact, thus, proved that what was,  in fact,  safe (toxic-free cosmetics) was profitable as well. Apart from the discovery, development, and use of alternative  natural products as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care,  other benefits were derived from involvement in Compact:

Lessons from the Compact for Safe Cosmetics

  • Hundreds of leading companies are already making safe, effective products without using hazardous chemicals that are commonly found in personal care products.
  • Hundreds of leading companies are already disclosing all ingredients, including those that make up “fragrance,” showing that it is not necessary for these ingredients to be kept secret from the public.
  • More than one thousand companies were eager to work with the Campaign to raise the bar for safer personal care products. Business-nonprofit organization partnerships such as this are an excellent model for driving markets to safe, sustainable products and practices.
  • Making healthier products is good for business. Companies do not have to choose between having a strong business and using safer chemicals (Market Shift Report 2011,9).

This news article on cosmetics use featured a significant feedback on the impact of Compact as a progressive and landmark initiative in terms of eradicating health threat through the elimination of the use of toxic substances in cosmetics and personal care products:

Natural Replacement of Controversial Ingredients is Widespread

On October 31, 2011 CosmeticsDesign.com, an online news source about the cosmetics industry, posted an article documenting “that raw material and ingredient suppliers have jumped on the consumer driven natural bandwagon. There is now a multitude of natural replacements for the most popular and most common ingredients. Suppliers are generating new ways for using natural ingredients which increase functionality of ingredients in a multitude of applications…With all the natural ingredients being made available for formulation, the next wave of consumer driven natural products will have spectacular ingredients at a marketable price, a coup d’état for all consumers.“ A  coup d’état indeed. Thanks to all of the Champion, Innovator and other Compact-signer companies that have led the way to meet the consumer demand for safe products and helped push the industry toward safer production (Market Shift Report 2011,10)

Re-thinking of Public Policy in the Lead in Lipstick Issue

The shifts  in the contours of the lead in lipstick issue in the United States, thus far after nearly two decades of struggle,  have been the mainly the result of relentless consumer advocacy. The significant elimination of the threats of lead poisoning is attributed to the shrinking of  market for notorious  toxic-bearing cosmetics and personal care products through the success of Compact and  its progeny, the Safe Cosmetics Business Network.  322 champions (companies which are  celebrated for full compliance to Compact) and 111 innovators (companies who have yet to achieve full compliance to Compact) (Market Shift, 2011, 14-16) appreciate the benefits of positive branding, dynamic  public support,  and  the enhanced profitability of business enterprises which are vanguards of public health and safety.

Another  strategic  arena of stakeholders’  participation that could lead towards the significant  re-thinking of public policy is the  expanding wealth of academic scientific research on the issue. Parallel to advocacy,  academic research projects published in refereed journals address public concerns on the lead in lipstick and  related issues. N. Lourith and  M. Kanlayavattanakul published  an article, “Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids”  on natural surfactants with biodegradability, low toxicity, and ecological acceptability  vis-à-vis the use ofmchemical surfactants to function as detergents in cosmetics. These natural surfactants can be derived from  glycolipids, which are microorganisms with the same efficacy and efficiency as their chemical counterparts  (International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2009).

Another article  on  Self-preserving  cosmetics  published A. Varvaresou, S. Papageorgiou, E. Tsirivas, E. Protopapa, H. Kintziou, V. Kefala and C. Demetzos focuses and advocates the use of preservative-free cosmetics applying  the principles of “hurdle technology” through the use of “multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts” as natural preservatives (IJCS June 2009).
“Simultaneous determination of heavy metals in cosmetic products” authored by S.-M. Lee, H.-J. Jeong and I. S. Chang discuss a more effective, accurate, and faster method of detecting the presence of heavy metals in cosmetics  evaluated by ion chromatography. These heavy metals are considered as impurities that cause skin allergy when absorbed by the skin (IJCS October 2008).

Scientific research can significantly inform and positively influence the initiatives to eliminate the presence of toxic substances and metals in cosmetics not unlike the efforts exerted by multi-million in-house researches conducted by multi-national cosmetic companies  (ie L’Oreal, Revlon, Nivea, etc) for product development and increase profitability for stockholders (www.sciencecareers.sciencemag.org). At best, the issue has brought together into closer collaboration scientists, corporate business, advocates, and consumer and other stakeholders.

What seems to be conspicuously absent in this debate of lead in lipstick  and other cosmetics and personal care products of nearly two decades is the  government sector and its legislative and implementing agencies. Policy articulations from the World Health Organization and the stringent policies adopted by the European Union  have not succeeded in inspiring US agencies and legislators to take pro-active positions in relation to the lead in lipstick and other related issues. 

The chronology found in Market Shift (2011) on consumer advocacy shows that this movement started in 2000 with the focus on toxic substances, particularly phthalates present in nail polish  and expanded into a research advocacy project which included cosmetics, shampoos, deodorants, hair gels in 2002. The  2004  European Union ban of 1,100 toxic chemicals present in cosmetics and personal care products is a landmark accomplishment of the decade vis-à-vis the 11 chemicals banned by the United States. 2004 is an advocacy coalition building and networking year with the start of Compact, partnerships with the Environmental Working Group, the Breast Cancer Fund, the founding of the largest data-base on cosmetics, Skin Deep, and the successful  campaign among corporations for greater involvement in the elimination of toxic substances in cosmetics. During this year, major international cosmetic companies expanded the European Union ban of toxic chemicals in cosmetics and personal care products to the United States.

A significant piece of state legislation, the 2005 California Safe Cosmetics Act, was passed through the efforts of  consumer,  health, women, and environmental advocates. The same group successfully secured the removal of toxic substances in nail polish from corporate giants, OPI, Sally Hansen, and Orly in 2006. The campaign for the elimination of lead in lipstick commenced with the findings of the 2007 research conducted by  Campaign for Safe Cosmetics  that lead is present in 2/3 of 33 samples. Leading mass-retailers also joined Compact in 2007 in the campaign for the use of natural, organic, and non-toxic substances in the manufacture of cosmetics. 2008 is a landmark year in the expansion of Compact with the involvement of more  retail stores, pharmaceutical firms, and other corporate  signatories who seriously pursued the goal of total compliance.

  • 2009 was  a significant year celebrating the formal involvement of FDA in the issue to match the intensified campaign by advocates  for greater and more  state involvement the previous year. Moreover, a Senate bill for safe cosmetics was filed by Sen. Kristin Gillibrand (D-NY). FDA in 2009 responded with a preliminary research study which confirmed the presence of lead in lipstick using an assortment of retail outlet samples.
  • 2010 was a dynamic year for CSC with the introduction  of  a proposed bill for Safe Cosmetics in the House of Representatives. FDA, this year, also expanded  its 2009 survey to include 400 lipstick samples which further confirmed the widespread presence of lead in lipstick. The state of California based on the provisions of the Safe Cosmetics Act banned the  Brazilian Blowout for the presence of toxic substances in this hair straightening product.
  • 2011 marked  the close of Campaign for Safe Cosmetics project with a record accomplishment of 322 companies with  full compliance (champions) and 111 companies progressing towards compliance (innovators). Another project, Safe Cosmetics Business Network opened to pursue similar goals for the total elimination of toxic substances and metals from cosmetics and personal care products.
    Thus, prospective government infrastructures and initiatives  might replicate  this dynamic advocacy template initiated by the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics towards the effective elimination of toxic substances in cosmetics and personal care and related products.

References

Primary Documents

Environmental Defence.  (2011). Heavy Metal Hazard.  www.safecosmetics.org    
Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. (2011). Market Shift. www.safecosmetics.org
National Safety Council. (n.d.). Lead Poisoning  www.nsc.org/news

Journal Sources

Lee, S.M.,  Jeong, H.J.  and Chang, I.S.  Simultaneous determination of heavy metals in cosmetic    products . International Journal of  Cosmetic. Science.  September/October 2008.
Lourith and M. Kanlayavattanakul.  Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids.  International Journal of  Cosmetic Science August 2009 .
Varvaresou ,  A.  Papageorgiou, et.al.  Self-preserving cosmetics.  International Journal of Cosmetic Science.   June 2009.

Other Sources

www.fda.gov/cosmetics
www.alternet.org
www.edition.cnn.com
www.registrarcorp.com
www.about.com
www.sciencecareers.sciencemag.org
www.canceresearchuk.org
www.humana.com
www.everydayhealth.com
www.nsc.org/news
www.snopes.com
www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/

This entry was posted in: Blog.

How to Keep Food Safe During an Emergency Caused by Nature

How to Keep Food Safe During an Emergency Caused by Nature

REPORT SUMMARY: Survival Without Food And Water, Likely Disaster In Your Area, Hurricane Strikes Since 1950, Measures Against Hurricanes, Assembling An Emergency Food Supply, The Aftermath Of The Disaster, Prepare Food Without Power & More.

An emergency caused by nature may be defined as a set of circumstances created by nature that poses a serious and immediate threat to your life, well being, possessions or environment. Almost all such emergencies call for urgent intervention and assistance to prevent the situation getting out of hand. Regrettably, there will be situations when mitigation is not possible; all that can be offered in such a situation will be palliative care to forestall the ill effects that ensue as the aftermath.

In the USA, common emergencies caused by nature are violent hurricanes that leave a trail of death and destruction behind them, tornados which have similar consequences but are much smaller in scale when compared to hurricanes, and the unpredictable earthquakes in California caused by the San Andreas Fault.

A flood, fire, national disaster, prolonged heat wave, tsunami, volcano or the loss of power from high winds, snow, or ice can put the safety of your food in jeopardy. Knowing how to establish if the food available is safe to eat and how to keep that food safe for the longest possible period will help reduce the potential loss of food while reducing the risk of disease carried by the food you’re likely to eat.

This article will help you make the right decisions for keeping your family safe during an emergency.

How Long Can You Survive Without Food and Water

The length of time a human can survive without food and water is totally dependent on the conditions obtaining and therefore, is a function of one or a combination of more than one factor. The most important is your will to survive. Going without water or food are two different stories, so they can be examined separately.

Caloric Intake Facts

The average man is 1.75 m (5’9”) tall, weighs 65 kg (156 lbs) and eats 2,400-2600 Kcal (calories) per day. You require about 1,600 residual calories distributed around your body as carbohydrates, fats and proteins when asleep before you wake up next morning to retain your figure. So, when you eat, you are adding to your residual calories, which is fine because your body needs 1,600 base calories for your internal systems to function. You need to shed those 2,400-2,600 calories you ate to stay trim. If you’ve gained 4-500 calories extra after a sumptuous meal, these are very easily shed so you can become trim again. One friendly jog for five minutes will knock off 50 cal. Or, walk up stairs for 10 minutes a day for five days. One full day without food will take 1,500 calories off you. It is a good habit to fast for one day a fortnight and give your digestive system a rest.

A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes from fat or carbohydrate. Any calories eaten in excess can lead to weight gain. You can lose weight by eating fewer calories and by increasing your physical activity. Your brain will adapt to the changed system and reduce your base calorie count to, say, 1,400. An impoverished man has a base value programmed from his early days at, say, 750 calories. His working, eating and drinking revolves around this figure of 750 calories.

Reducing the amount of total fat and saturated fat that you eat is one way to limit your overall calorie intake. In fact, 1 gram of fat equals 9 calories, whereas 1 gram of protein or carbohydrate equals less than half the number of calories (4 calories each). By reducing total fat intake, you help reduce your calorie intake.

Survival Without Food (with water)

Humans have far more stamina than they know and can manage a long period of hunger, provided they are well hydrated. The self-evident factors are your physical fitness, total body weight and type of body mass and the prevailing weather. The answer to this question cannot be derived easily since no two persons are alike. For that matter, prevailing conditions may not be the same either. The factors at play are many in number.

  • Among the factors that determine how long you can go without food, will power, mental health and determination play a definite part. A number of people have gone on hunger strikes for political and religious reasons for a month! There are many cases of people getting lost in the wilderness and given up for dead by rescue teams suddenly reappearing, having survived for a long time without food. Perhaps the best documented example is that of the crash of the Uruguayan Air Force aircraft in the Andes on 13 Oct. 1972 when a passenger aircraft with 45 souls on board crashed and 16 survivors were rescued on 23 Dec. 1972, seventy two days after the accident. The 16 were pushed so hard to survive that they ultimately ate the flesh of their dead co-passengers, friends and colleagues.
  • There is a consensus of opinion that healthy human beings can manage without food for 50-60 days so long as water is available. Exceptions exist and people have survived longer, whereas people have died of starvation in much less time. A healthy body and good physical condition generally helps you to survive longer, as does that extra adipose tissue or body fat. We all know that food eaten is converted into energy required to live. This energy is stored as fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are used up first when more food is not coming in. The fat goes next, which explains why people with more of it can survive longer. Next go the proteins. This is when the threat factor sets in. If your body is consuming proteins, it is becoming a ‘cannibal’ in that it is eating your core structure, the nucleus of your body.
  • Your metabolism is also involved. Metabolism is the process of converting food ingested into energy. If you can slow down your metabolism, you’ll consume the food you ate at a matching slow rate and be able to go longer without replacing the food energy. If you do not eat food, your metabolism (brain) senses that intake was low and outgo must be adjusted, unless there is a requirement to produce a high performance, much like amateur boxers who need to shed half a kilo just before weigh-in time. The brain is supracomplex and will adjust your metabolism to slow it down – pitching in for survival.
  • Climate is yet another major factor. Both cold and hot weather are detrimental if you lack food to eat, in their own unique ways. Hot weather dehydrates you, cold weather requires more energy to be burned so that your body temperature stays normal at 37° C (98.6° F). In fact, you won’t have the time to starve to death before the solitary reaper claims you as victim. If you’re stranded in mild temperatures, you’ll survive a couple of hours extra without food.

The basic symptoms you will see if you start a starvation diet for an extended period of time are:

  • Weakness
  • Confusion
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Irritability and poor decision making
  • Deficiency in immunity

Advanced starvation has serious repercussions. It will force your organs to shut down one after another. People experiencing severe starvation fall prey to the following:

  • Hallucinations
  • Convulsions and muscle spasms
  • Irregular heartbeat

Survival Without Water

You can survive 2-5 days without water, depending on your build, your location and how much you sweat, urinate, or shed as tears. At any given time, a human is 70 percent water. Your blood is mainly water; your brain is 75 percent water, your muscles are also almost 75 percent water and all joints use water as lubricants. Every single system in your body functions on water. If the body were to lose water and you had the option, just lie down and stop any exertion of any kind, till some person finds you and gives you water to rehydrate.

As a spectator at highly physical matches like hockey, football and tennis, you must have players rehydrating regularly. Even in what is considered a slow game, cricket players start to cramp on a warm day. The standard solution is a 250 cc bottle of water with a spoonful of glucose and salt added.

Survival With Food, but no Water

Returning to the situation when you have food but no water− that food is dangerous. The moment you take a bite, the brain will release fluids (water) to digest it, starting with saliva, gastric fluids (even though they are acids) as well as fluids in the intestines, kidneys, liver, you name it. There have been miracles, no doubt, but that’s what they were, miracles. A 97 year old woman survived 8 days without drinking or eating anything under the rubble of her home after an earthquake occurred in Iran in January 2004. Nearly all newborn babies, later became known as Miracle Babies, were found and rescued after being 7 days under the wreckage of Hospital Juarez in Mexico City earthquake in 1985.

Foods with High Water Content

In addition to the water we drink, approximately a fifth of our fluid intake is acquired through food and vegetables. Many fruits and vegetables contain as much as 90 percent or more water, making them the ideal choice for a meal or even a snack to keep your water intake high. Fruits like coconuts are over 97 percent water; fruits like watermelons, grapefruit, cantaloupes, peaches, other melons, grapes, strawberries, cranberries, orange and raspberries all have 90 percent water or more, though their energy content, except for coconuts, is somewhat low.

The list of vegetables with high water content has cucumber and lettuce, consisting of 96 percent water. Zucchini, radish and celery are comprised of 95 percent water. Ninety-four percent of a tomato’s weight is water, and green cabbage is 93 percent water. Vegetables that contain 92 percent water include cauliflower, eggplant, red cabbage and spinach. Broccoli is 91 percent water by weight.

In a study carried out by the University of Aberdeen Medical School in 2009, it was reported that after completing an intense workout, eating a watermelon or cucumber rehydrated your body twice as effectually as a glass of water. This is because such types of high water content fruits and vegetables replace the natural sugars, vitamins, amino acids and mineral salts lost in the workout and is far more effective than plain water or a sports drinks. Sports drinks combine the hydrating and energy replacing components of most of the fruits and vegetables listed above as high in water content and also have artificial colors and flavors which are, by and large, harmless. The difference lies in the fact that their combination is arbitrary, or generic, designed for the average person. But then, you are you-a discrete human with specific requirements as dictated by the constitution of your body and brain. The consumption of high water content foods is highly advantageous in that they provide a feeling of fullness while transferring minimal calories to your physique.

Preparing for the Likely Disaster in Your Area

You now know how long you can survive:

  • Without food but with water
  • With food but without water
  • Without anything

You are now in a situation where you have a solution. So what is the question? That one question is: Can you and your family survive in an emergency? There are follow up queries too. We know what an emergency means, but are you living in an area prone to emergencies? What is the average American’s chance of facing an emergency? Are reactions to all emergencies the same?

Napa Valley gets struck by the largest earthquake in 25 years. Hurricanes churn through the Atlantic. Floods claim four lives as they sweep through parts of the Northeast. Every region in America faces its own dangers, but when you account for all kinds of natural disasters–from earthquakes to winter storms to tornados–what place is safest of them all? The honor goes to Sweet Grass County, Montana, according to an analysis of more than a half century of weather patterns and destructive natural events across the USA. Sweet Grass is home to 3,000 people who are fortunate enough to live far from wildfires to the west and twister country to the east, not to mention 900 miles from any trouble caused by the sea. Ocean County, New Jersey, is the country’s most dangerous county, when it comes to frequency of natural disasters. Jersey Shore communities in Ocean County are vulnerable to tidal surges and storms like Sandy. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration USA

Figure 2: Safe/Unsafe Counties in the USA

Use the map above to see where your county ranks.  This link will take you to a page on Time Magazine, and you can check out how safe you are on their interactive map.

The Disaster Index

Researchers at Time Magazine have calculated what they call the disaster index. All records were taken from the database maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on earthquakes and tornados from 1950 and 42 other disaster since 1996. Based on their findings, they have listed the Counties listed in Chart 2 as the 15 Most Dangerous Counties in the USA.

RANK

COUNTY

STATE

DISASTER INDEX

POPULATION IN 2010

1

Ocean County

NJ

223.7

576,567

2

Orange County

CA

180.8

3,010,232

3

Cape May County

NJ

174.3

97,265

4

Monmouth County

NJ

173.8

630,380

5

Los Angeles County

CA

171.0

9,818,605

6

Clinton County

NY

156.8

82,128

7

Burlington County

NJ

156.5

448,734

8

San Diego County

CA

155.8

3,095,313

9

Franklin County

NY

152.6

51,599

10

Riverside County

CA

145.7

2,189,641

11

San Bernardino County

CA

145.4

2,035,210

12

Atlantic County

NJ

143.5

274,549

13

Chittenden County

VT

143.3

156,545

14

Grand Isle County

VT

142.3

6,970

15

Camden County

NJ

139.3

513,657

Chart 2: The 15 Most Dangerous Counties in the USA
Source: Time Magazine

Using the same criteria, the following Counties are the safest in the USA

RANK

COUNTY

STATE

DISASTER INDEX

POPULATION IN 2010

1

Sweet Grass County

MT

1.7

3,651

2

Washington County

ID

1.7

10,198

3

Wheatland County

MT

1.8

2,168

4

Sherman County

OR

2.0

1,765

5

Emporia city

VA

2.0

5,927

6

Fergus County

MT

2.3

11,586

7

Luna County

NM

2.4

25,095

8

Liberty County

MT

2.4

2,339

9

Grant County

NM

2.5

29,514

10

Malheur County

OR

2.7

31,313

11

Potter County

SD

2.7

2,329

12

Hill County

MT

2.8

16,096

13

Silver Bow County

MT

2.8

34,200

14

Canyon County

ID

2.8

188,923

15

Golden Valley County

MT

2.9

884

Chart 3: The 15 Safest Counties in the USA
Source: Time Magazine

What is striking is that the safest counties have virtually no population to speak of. Evidently, there is some unwelcome factor prevalent in these counties that people are avoiding living in them en masse.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Events measured by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USA, research include earthquake, hurricane (typhoon), cold wind chill, astronomical low tide, coastal flood, avalanche, dense fog, drought, dust devil, dust storm, excessive heat, extreme cold/wind chill, flash flood, flood, freezing fog, funnel cloud, hail, heat, heavy rain, heavy snow, high surf, high wind, ice storm, lakeshore flood, landslide, lightning, rip current, sleet, storm surge/tide, strong wind, thunderstorm wind, tornado, tropical depression, tropical storm, tsunami, waterspout, wildfire, winter storm and winter weather (ibid).

Figure 3: Hurricane Strikes since 1950
Source: NOAA

Hurricane Strikes Since 1950

Since 1851, 290 North Atlantic hurricanes have produced hurricane-strength winds in 19 states on the Atlantic coast. Some may have remained offshore, yet producing hurricane- strength winds on land; some may have weakened to a tropical storm before landfall yet produced hurricane conditions on land while still a hurricane and some of them made landfall in an adjacent state but produced hurricane conditions over multiple states.

All categories of disasters listed are not equally dangerous. The most disastrous have been hurricanes, as three to four of different scales may strike in one year; some years have been hurricane free in that they have died out just before encountering land or reduced to a large storm. Hurricanes have claimed over three thousand five hundred lives in the U.S. since 1996 while wildfires have taken 130 lives during the same period. Many counties have seen hundreds of incidents over the years, specifically hurricane prone New Jersey and quake-prone California.

Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina has been the most destructive Atlantic tropical cyclone this millennium. It is also the most damage causing natural disaster in the history of the United States. Katrina has the dubious distinction of being the 7th deadliest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded, and 2005 has seen three of the six most intense Atlantic hurricanes recorded (along with #1 Wilma and #4 Rita). 1,833 people are known to have died in the hurricane and the inevitable other disasters that follow, like floods, power outage, disconnection from the world at large and non-availability of fresh food or water other than what was supplied by rescue officials. The damage to property was projected at $108 billion (2005 USD).

If a hurricane is going to hit your house, there is nothing you can do. Prudence demands that you take safety measures in advance and pray that the intensity of the hurricane is low. As a resident of New Jersey (Chart 2), you should have an action plan ready and your entire family aware of what can happen and how they can help you in weathering the storm. Historically, the maximum property damage occurs in coastal areas, like beachfront towns. Nine out of ten can expect severe floods.

Measures Against Hurricanes

If you intend to safeguard yourself and your family from a hurricane, plan for four stages. These are the precautionary stage, the prelude, the storm and the after effects.

1. Precautionary Stage

  • There will be more than adequate warning before a hurricane strikes. That said, there is no guarantee that a hurricane will stick to its predicted path after hitting land. This can work both ways, for and against you. If you are in the path, the hurricane may pass you by, but considering its size, you may still be hit by its peripheral clouds, which will have very strong winds but less than expected rain. Buy emergency supplies now, well before it happens. The power outage may last days. Avoid the crowd by getting in early at the mart. Let’s also assume your house is 40 miles from the coastline (two hours travel time for the hurricane).
  • Consider moving to a relative’s house in say, Chicago or further west. Make sure you leave in time. Hurricanes move fairly slowly, about 25-30 mph or 40-48 kmh at that latitude, but the wind speed under its swirling cloud mass can touch 120+ mph, or 190 kph+. It is these winds and lashing rain that cause physical damage, but floods are caused by both the rain and poor drainage systems, as proved in New Orleans after a post-mortem of Katrina.
  • If you decide to stay, as generally happens, then shore up your basement. You will have to endure the strong winds when safely ensconced in your basement. After the worst is over, you will have to face the ordeal of waiting till life recovers to normal. If floods are to follow, they will convert your basement into a swimming pool. If you do not have a second floor, things could be touch and go in your house. Be prepared to evacuate in the worst case scenario. If you live in an apartment, there is no need to move anything; all you have to do is ‘batten down those hatches’ and stock up whatever is relevant from the list below.
  • You will require these items in your basement:
    • Hurricane lamps.
    • A set of torches and spare batteries.
    • Attach iridescent stickers on flashlights for easy location in little or no light.
    • Candles, four to five dozen and candle stick holders. Be careful not to start a fire.
    • Matches and disposable lighters.
    • A charging system.
    • An inverter with two high power batteries, 48 V each. You will also need an adapter to plug the inverter into any electrical power socket. Charge the batteries fully and ensurethey have enough distilled water.
    • Electrical cables, preferably two rolls of 50 ft each, colored red and green.
    • Battery-powered space heater.
    • Extension cords, long enough to reach your neighbor’s house.
    • Rubber gloves and gum boots for all.
    • Hand tools such as hammer, screwdriver, nails and wood saw.
    • Firewood and charcoal.
    • A gas camping stove or hibachi grill.
    • Extra blankets.
    • Paper plates, cups and plastic utensils.
    • First-aid kit and manual.
    • Fire Extinguisher.
    • Whistle.
    • Spare toiletry bag, with enough soap, shampoo, toothbrushes for all, toothpaste, basic medicines like aspirin and vitamins.
    • Sanitation and hygiene items (moist towelettes and toilet paper).
    • Prescription medicines for any affected person/persons, eye glasses, contact lens solutions, and hearing aid batteries.
    • Kitchen accessories and cooking utensils, including a can opener.
    • Photocopies of credit and identification cards.
    • Cash and coins with everybody.
    • Items for infants, such as formula, diapers, bottles, and pacifiers.
    • Clothing to keep your family warm, underwear and socks. Wear double layers in cold climates, and keep your head covered to retain loss of heat.
    • Space heaters that automatically shut off if they are moved or fall over.
    • Extra blankets, sleeping bags or newspapers to put on your bed/makeshift bed at night.
    • Knowledge that refrigerators and freezers are at their coldest settings in the house.
    • Extension to your phone line.
    • Mini-gas cylinder with attached lamp.
    • List of emergency phone nos. in huge print.
    • Mosquito repellent.
    • Fuel for your hurricane lamps.
    • Battery operated radios and clocks.
    • Knowledge that food is stored on shelves safely out of the way of flood waters.
    • Confirmation that an order for dry ice and ice blocks has been placed.
    • An 18 cubic foot standalone freezer. There should be 50 lbs (23 kg) of dry ice in this gadget when power goes. Use only this freezer. It will be the first device to be rendered ineffective, within 44-52 hours, but it would have done its job.
    • Coolers available and easily accessible. Styrofoam coolers work great.
    • Freezer bags filled with ice to make ice packs/ freezer-pack inserts.
    • Stocked ready-to-eat foods.
    • Shelf-stable items that are not canned. Look for juice boxes, stock and broth in boxes, dried fruits and snack items, and others that can be stored without refrigeration.
    • Some engaging, non-electronic games like cards and Scrabble, etc.
    • Bags to carry the equipment in, with inventory cards.

2. The Prelude

  • This is the phase when you get to know that the hurricane is close to the coast. In fact, high cirrus clouds (crow’s nest or mare’s tail) would have started appearing at least 60-90 hours earlier, with menacing clouds appearing about 2-2½ days later. A drizzle will set in, gradually becoming light, then heavy rain with very strong winds. Recheck the outside of your house to see that there is nothing that can fly off and hurt others just before the drizzle sets in.
    • Satellite dishes should be dismantled and brought in.
    • Recheck windows that might flap open in strong winds are nailed down.
    • Bring all flower pots into your garage.
    • Triple check your garage for safety, as they are weak structures, particularly their roofs. Cover glass surfaces of your car with Styrofoam. Cover the car securely with canvas.
    • Collect your order for dry ice and ice blocks as the drizzle starts. The exact timing is a function of how far your home is from the coastline and the market.
    • Freeze refrigerated items such as milk and fresh meat and poultry that you may not need immediately — this helps keep them at a safe temperature longer.
    • Group food together in the freezer – this helps the food stay cold longer. A fully packed freezer keeps food safe longer than a lightly loaded one. Think ‘safety in numbers’!
    • Check that water repellent tarps, life jackets, inflatable raft if you have one, and kid’s swimming pools are inside the house.
    • Keep an appliance thermometer in the refrigerator and freezer on the first floor. An appliance thermometer indicates the temperature in the container. In case of a power outage, it helps determine the safety of the food. The freezer should be as close to -18°C (0°F) as possible, while the fridge should be at or below 4°C (39°F).
    • Keep another appliance thermometer in your standalone freezer in the basement. Put all your perishable eatables and leftovers in this freezer. The temperature should be as close to -18°C (0°F) as possible.
    • Fill Ziplock bags, empty soda bottles, and other plastic containers with water and freeze. Use these to keep items in the freezer, refrigerator, and coolers cold.
    • Fill freezer bags with ice to make ice packs/buy freezer-pack inserts. This is mainly for the standalone freezer you’re going to eat from in the first two days and then for the refrigerator and its freezer compartment.

Note: Bacteria cannot survive temperatures below 4.°4 C (40° F). When the temperature rises above 40° F, it will take about two hours for all ice flakes to drop off. This is an indicator that conditions have changed in favor of bacteria, which thrive in such conditions and multiply very rapidly. There is only one thing you may do now: Throw away all food items that have crossed the two hour limit.

3. The Storm

  • Watch the storm from within the safety of your home. Look up to see if loose objects are flying around. Watch the windspeed pick up and batter your walls, windows and doors. Learn from the experience. As the intensity increases, head for your basement. It is only a matter of time before you have a power outage, if it hasn’t already gone.
    • There is nothing you can do but wait. Monitor progress on a smartphone.
    • Listen to a broadcast to find out if tidal waves have surged inland. Heed all warnings.
    • The rain will not let up for at least two days, while wind strength will keep varying.
    • Several agencies would have initiated precautionary action about five days before the storm intensified into a hurricane, like The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Police Department, the United States Coast Guard, National Hurricane Center and the National Weather Service.
    • In due course, the hurricane will either move away or die out.
    • Pray that the accumulated water outside drains quickly.
    • NEVER taste food to check if it is safe-never!

These three phases are the most manageable phases. All your supplies will hold, nothing will run out of stock in these couple of days, unless you have mismanaged the situation. The problems start now, in the recovery phase, particularly if there is flooding. The after effects of what was a controlled situation are what cause great mental trauma. We will look at the aftermath later.

Assembling an Emergency Food Supply

Your emergency supplies should consist of food, water and other supplies for at least five days. Your entire family should know where it is, what it contains, how it is to be utilized and who will look after it. All food will be in the fridge or freezer. Surplus cans must be stored on the highest shelves, keeping them safe from flood water. In case of a power outage, nobody should open any cooling equipment, except for the person in charge.

Water: Store at least one gallon of water per person per day for five days. An average person drinks one-half gallon of water every day, though this will reduce if there is a temperature drop. Remember:

  • Individual needs vary, depending on age, physical condition, activity, diet, and climate.
  • Children, nursing mothers, and ill people need more water.
  • Temperatures above 95°F (35°C), though unlikely, will increase the amount of water by 50%.
  • A medical emergency might require additional water.
  • It is recommended you purchase commercially bottled water in the precautionary stage.
  • If you are using council supplied tap water, stock it in large bottles. Use two-liter plastic soft drink bottles. Clean the bottles thoroughly with dishwashing soap and water, and rinse completely so there is no residual soap. Sanitize the bottles by adding a solution of 1 teaspoon of non-scented liquid household chlorine bleach to a quart of water and swishing vigorously. After sanitizing the bottle, rinse out the sanitizing solution thoroughly with clean water.
  • Filling water containers: Fill the bottle to the top with regular tap water. If the tap water has been commercially treated from a water utility with chlorine, you need not add anything else to the water. If the water you are using comes from a well or water source that is not treated with chlorine, add two drops of non-scented liquid household chlorine bleach to the water. Tightly close the container using the original cap (ibid).
  • Many fruits and vegetables will hold their quality at room temperature, so buy them. Apples, tomatoes, grapes, heads of lettuce, squash, onions, potatoes, celery, peppers, and other produce will store well as long as they are stored in a cool and dark place.
  • Canned foods: canned beans, olive oil, tuna, chicken, small bottles of mayonnaise and salad dressing, canned meats and seafood, evaporated milk, soups, oil, canned juices, fruit, mustard and ketchup, brown bread, vegetables, dried foods, dried soup mixes, pastas, vegetables, meat, powdered milk, bouillon cubes and granules, spices, dried sauce mixes, pesto mixes, fruit, mushrooms and instant pudding mixes.

Food: Keep the following in mind when stocking your food supplies in the precautionary phase:

  • Avoid foods that will make you thirsty. Choose salt-free crackers, whole grain cereals, and canned foods with high liquid content.
  • Stock canned foods, dry mixes, and other staples that do not require refrigeration, cooking, water, or special preparation. You may already have many of these on hand. Do include a manual can opener.
  • Keep a handy stock of plain milk chocolates.
  • Include special dietary needs (ibid).
  • Multivitamins.
  • Nuts and trail mixes, preferably in vacuum-packed containers which keep them fresh.

Canned Foods

“Canned foods maintain mineral content for entire shelf life. Vitamins A & C will decrease rapidly after fruits and vegetables are picked and cooked. Vitamins are lost during heating processes; however, once canned, vitamin A & C loss slows to 5- 20% per year. Other vitamins remain close to fresh food levels.”

Several factors limit the shelf-life of canned foods:

  • Cans or metal lids on glass jars can rust. When rust is deep enough, tiny holes open in the can or lid that may let spoilage agents in. Shipping accidents that dent or crush cans cause problems.
  • Can corrosion. Food reacts chemically with the metal container, especially high-acid food like canned tomatoes and fruit juices. Over several years, this causes taste and texture changes. It eventually lowers the nutritional value of the food.
  • Temperatures over 38° C (100° F) are harmful to canned foods. The risk of spoilage jumps sharply as storage temperatures rise. At prolonged storage temperatures above 24° C (75° F), nutrient loss in canned foods increases. Light can cause color changes and nutrient losses in foods canned in glass jars.

To store canned food wisely:

  • Store in a cool, clean, dry place where temperature is below 85 degrees (between 50-70 degrees is good) but not freezing temperatures.
  • Rotate foods so the oldest is used first. Try not to keep canned foods more than one year.
  • Use canned meats and seafood within 12 months.
  • Use low-acid canned foods within 8-12 months.
  • Use high-acid foods within 12 to 18 months. Foods stored longer will be safe to eat if the cans show no signs of spoilage or damage but may deteriorate in color, flavor and nutritive value.
  • Canned fruit juices can be stored up to 3 years.

Never use foods from containers with spoilage warning signs like loose or bulging lids on jars; bulging, leaking or badly dented cans (especially along the top, side and bottom seams); or foods with a foul odor (ibid).

The Aftermath of the Disaster

Power Outages

As soon as you lose power, unplug the freezer and refrigerator, as well as other appliances, to protect them from electricity surges when power returns. The inverter will give you 72 hours or more backup for one TV + 3 bulbs + 3 fans. Use your TV sparingly; recharge smartphones freely. Wrap the refrigerator/freezer in blankets, making sure they don’t touch the compressor, to create extra insulation. The same holds good for the standalone freezer.

If you have followed these directions to a T, there is very little chance of you running out of food. In any case, rescue teams will be making the rounds as soon as it is safe to do so. Items in the freezer can potentially stay frozen for 2 to 4 days, depending on the size of the freezer, how full it is, and how well insulated it is. These steps have been listed already. A full freezer that had been operating at 0°F will keep foods frozen for about 48 hours if the doors remain closed.

The blocks of dry ice are most useful in extended power outages. Use a twelve pound block of dry ice in the freezer and it will keep the contents frozen for one extra day, since you are not going to even touch it till the standalone freezer has done its job. Do wear gloves or use tongs when handling dry ice. The ideal method of using dry ice, apart from wearing gloves, is listed below:

  • Put heavy cardboard on top of packages of frozen food in each compartment of your freezer and put the dry ice on top of the cardboard.
  • If possible, place meat and poultry on a tray or seal them in a tough plastic bag so that their juices do not leak onto other foods if they ever begin to thaw.
  • Ensure you have a few days’ stock of foods that do not require cooking or cooling.
  • The safest way to determine a food’s safety is to use a kitchen thermometer. If a food’s temperature registers at 4.4°C (40°F) or below, it is safe. If not, destroy or discard it.
  • Feed infants and young children with care.
    • Breastfed infants should continue breastfeeding. For formula-fed infants, use ready-to-feed formula if possible. If using ready-to-feed formula is not possible, it is best to use bottled water to prepare powdered or concentrated formula. If bottled water is not available, use boiled water. Use treated water to prepare formula only if you do not have bottled or boiled water. You should have one week’s quantum of formula.
    • If you prepare formula with boiled water, let the formula cool sufficiently before giving it to an infant. Use your kitchen utensils over a regulated flame/fire to boil water.
    • Clean feeding bottles and nipples with bottled, boiled, or treated water before each use.
    • Wash your hands before preparing formula and before feeding an infant. You can use alcohol-based hand sanitizer for washing your hands if the water supply is limited.
    • Ensure you have enough wipes/diapers (and plastic bags for disposal) in the house.
    • Recheck that you can cater to every need of the toddler for one full week, including light blankets, laundry detergent and medication, if any.

When Floodwater Enters Your House

  1. Keep Stored Water Safe: Once you realize that your house will get flooded, take all the items in the basement to the second floor and keep them under tarpaulins. If you do not have a second floor, keep all items as high as you can, covered with waterproofing material like tarpaulins, plastic or rubber sheets, etc. Thereafter:
    • Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available.
    • If you don’t have bottled water, you should boil water to make it safe. Boiling water will kill most types of disease-causing organisms that may be present.
    • If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloth or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for boiling.
    • Boil the water for one minute, let it cool, and store it in clean containers with covers.
    • If you can’t boil water, you can disinfect it using household bleach. Bleach will kill some, but not all, types of disease-causing organisms that may be in the water.
    • If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloth or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for disinfection.
    • Add 1/8 teaspoon (or 8 drops) of regular, unscented, liquid household bleach per each gallon of water. Stir it well and let it stand for at least 30 minutes before you use it.
    • Store disinfected water in clean containers with covers.
    • If you have a well that has been flooded, the water should be tested and disinfected after flood waters recede. If you suspect that your well may be contaminated, contact your local or state health department or agriculture extension agent for specific advice.
    • If flood waters reach food stored on shelves and in cabinets, many food items that came in contact with flood water are unsafe. A guide of what to keep and what to discard follows:
      • Do not eat any food that may have come into contact with flood water – this includes raw fruits and vegetables, cartons of milk or eggs.
      • Discard any food that is not in a waterproof container if there is any chance that it has come into contact with flood water.
      • Food containers that are not waterproof include those packaged in plastic wrap or cardboard, or those with screw‐caps, snap lids, pull tops, and crimped caps. Flood waters can enter any of these containers and contaminate the food inside. Also, discard cardboard juice/milk/baby formula boxes and home canned foods if they have come in contact with flood water, because they cannot be effectively cleaned and sanitized.
      • Check canned foods and discard any food in damaged cans. Can damage is shown by swelling, leakage, punctures, holes, fractures, extensive deep rusting, or rushing/denting severe enough to prevent normal stacking or opening with a manual, wheel‐type can opener. Do not taste any food to check if it is still edible.
    • Salvaging canned items: Undamaged, commercially prepared foods in all‐metal cans and retort pouches (for example, flexible, shelf‐stable juice or seafood pouches) can be saved if you do the following:
      • Remove the labels, if they are the removable kind, since they can harbor dirt and bacteria.
      • Thoroughly wash the cans or retort pouches with soap and water, using hot water if it is available.
      • Brush or wipe away any dirt or silt.
      • Rinse the cans or retort pouches with water that is safe for drinking, if available, since dirt or residual soap will reduce the effectiveness of chlorine sanitation.
      • Then, sanitize them by immersion in one of the two following ways:
        • Place in water and allow the water to come to a boil and continue boiling for 2 minutes, or
        • Place in a freshly made solution consisting of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of drinking water (or the cleanest, clearest water available) for 15 minutes.
      • Air‐dry cans or retort pouches for a minimum of 1 hour before opening or storing.
      • If the labels were removable, then re‐label your cans or retort pouches, including the expiry date (if available), with a marker.
      • Food in reconditioned cans or retort pouches should be used as soon as possible, thereafter.
      • Any concentrated baby formula in reconditioned, all‐metal containers must be diluted with clean, drinking water (ibid).

How to Prepare Food Without Power

If some disaster causes a power outage, you could use the gas camping stove or hibachi grill, or cook over an open fire. It may or may not be practical or possible to do so every meal, or for an extended period of time. So what are your options for uncooked meals without a working freezer or refrigerator?

You’ll be making a meal from stored food. Canned fruits and vegetables are not a problem. So the issue becomes staple foods: grains, potatoes, etc. There are several food options: instant oatmeal, quick barley, instant mashed potatoes, ramen, tabouli and couscous.

Use only clean safe drinking water. Preparation of stored food without cooking can contain bacteria. This food must be eaten immediately after preparation, to preclude bacterial growth which makes the food unsafe to eat. Instant oatmeal with non-fat dry milk, prepared without heat, though not as good as when it is cooked, is one of the better options for preparing food when you don’t have power to cook. It’s a great breakfast option.

Barley is a good staple food, which is high in protein and carbs. Quick barley will store well long-term if kept cool, sealed, and dry. This is definitively a good food for storage. Instant mashed potatoes take up room temperature bottled water quickly and well. The taste seems unaffected by the lack of cooking. You probably like your mashed potatoes hot, but that is situational. Try opening a small bottle of mayonnaise sauce and finish it. Instant mashed potato, ketchup and mayonnaise is a decent meal.

Making couscous at room temperature bottled water, takes 15 minutes or more. If the couscous turns out crunchy, add more water and let it sit for another 10 minutes. Taste-wise, couscous prepared in this manner is almost indistinguishable from cooked couscous, except that it is not hot. Add oil and vinegar, with some spices and salt to taste. Couscous is made with wheat, just like regular pasta, and it is just as nutritious. Tabouli and ramen are two more options.

Prepare ‘heat only’ foods like canned soup, stew, chili or ‘just add water’ foods like instant soup or oatmeal on a canned heat stove, prepare raw foods or canned foods that do not need heating, or prepare easy to cook meals on a one burner butane stove.

The one burner butane stove has many advantages. It will accommodate larger size cookware than the canned heat stove and normal kitchen cookware can be used. The butane stove can be used indoors with good ventilation. The gas flame is easier to regulate than canned heat and is hotter. These advantages allow the preparation of recipes rather than just heating up of canned foods thus giving more variety to menus while the power is out. A list of recipes for meals that can be prepared in 20 minutes or less (to conserve fuel) is at Pantry Cooking: Unlocking Your Pantry’s Potential.

Keeping Food Safe During an Ice Storm

Even a thin coating of ice can result in a travel nightmare, while heavier amounts will severely damage trees and power lines. Strong winds can add extra force to already weighed down tree branches and power lines, increasing the likelihood of significant damage.

Ice Storm Facts

  • Ice can increase the weight of branches more than 25 times.
  • A 0.5 inch accretion on electrical lines can add 500 pounds of extra weight between successive pylons.
  • In 2009, a heavy ice storm between northern Arkansas and the Ohio Valley shut down power to 1.3 million homes.
  • An ice storm between northern New York and northern New England in 1998 damaged trees by the millions. Ice accretion was as much as 7.5 cm (3”) thick!

These ice accumulations are caused by freezing rain. Freezing rain is the consequence of snow dropping through an above-freezing level warm layer in the atmosphere, wherein snowflakes melt into rain. These raindrops transit through a thin layer of air below freezing temperature at the surface of the earth, freezing immediately when it makes contact with land, trees, cars, etc.

Precautions:

  • Avoid driving on icy roads for your safety and the safety of emergency personnel.
  • Make sure you have several ways to communicate with others, like landline phones, cell phones, texting, etc.
  • Children should be stopped from playing around ice-covered trees for fear of injury.
  • Never use portable generators, camp stoves and grills inside your home or garage to forestall carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Use flashlights during power outages instead of candles to prevent the risk of fire. Attach a luminous strip of fluorescent paper to your torches.

Refrigerator Foods

When to Save and When to Throw It Out

FOOD

Held above 40 ºF for over 2 hours

MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD

Discard

Raw or leftover cooked meat, poultry, fish, or seafood; soy meat substitutes

Discard

Thawing meat or poultry

Discard

Meat, tuna, shrimp, chicken, or egg salad

Discard

Gravy, stuffing, broth

Discard

Lunchmeats, hot dogs, bacon, sausage, dried beef

Discard

Pizza – with any topping

Discard

Canned hams labeled “Keep Refrigerated”

Discard

Canned meats and fish, opened

Discard

CHEESE

 

Soft Cheeses: blue/bleu, Roquefort, Brie, Camembert, cottage, cream, Edam, Monterey Jack, ricotta, mozzarella, Muenster, Neufchatel, queso blanco, queso fresco

Discard

Hard Cheeses: Cheddar, Colby, Swiss, Parmesan, Provolone, Romano

Safe

Processed Cheeses

Safe

Shredded Cheeses

Discard

Low-fat Cheeses

Discard

Grated Parmesan, Romano, or combination (in can or jar)

Safe

DAIRY

 

Milk, cream, sour cream, buttermilk, evaporated milk, yogurt, eggnog, soy milk

Discard

Butter, margarine

Safe

Baby formula, opened

Discard

EGGS

 

Fresh eggs, hard-cooked in shell, egg dishes, egg products

Discard

Custards and puddings

Discard

CASSEROLES, SOUPS, STEWS

Discard

FRUITS

 

Fresh fruits, cut

Discard

Fruit juices, opened

Safe

Canned fruits, opened

Safe

Fresh fruits, coconut, raisins, dried fruits, candied fruits, dates

Safe

SAUCES, SPREADS, JAMS

 

Opened mayonnaise, tartar sauce, horseradish

Discard if above 50 °F for over 8 hrs.

Peanut butter

Safe

Jelly, relish, taco sauce, mustard, catsup, olives, pickles

Safe

Worcestershire, soy, barbecue sauces, Hoisin sauce

Safe

Fish sauces (oyster sauce)

Discard

Opened vinegar-based dressings

Safe

Opened creamy-based dressings

Discard

Spaghetti sauce, opened jar

Discard

BREAD, CAKES, COOKIES, PASTA, GRAINS

 

Bread, rolls, cakes, muffins, quick breads, tortillas

Safe

Refrigerator biscuits, rolls, cookie dough

Discard

Cooked pasta, rice, potatoes

Discard

Pasta salads with mayonnaise or vinaigrette

Discard

Fresh pasta

Discard

Cheesecake

Discard

Breakfast foods –waffles, pancakes, bagels

Safe

PIES, PASTRY

 

Pastries

Discard

Pies – custard

Discard

Pies

Safe

VEGETABLES

 

Fresh mushrooms, herbs, spices

Safe

Greens, pre-cut, pre-washed, packaged

Discard

Vegetables, raw

Safe

Vegetables, cooked; tofu

Discard

Vegetable juice, opened

Discard

Baked potatoes

Discard

Commercial garlic in oil

Discard

Potato Salad

Discard

Chart 4 Source: Keeping_Food_Safe_During_an_Emergency.pdf

Frozen Food

When to Save and When to Throw It Out

FOOD

STILL CONTAINS ICE CRYSTALS AND FEELS AS COLD AS IF REFRIGERATED

HELD ABOVE
40 °F FOR OVER 2 HOURS

MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD

 

 

Beef, veal, lamb, pork, and ground meat

Refreeze

Discard

Poultry and ground poultry

Refreeze

Discard

Variety meats (liver, kidney, heart, chitterlings)

Refreeze

Discard

Casseroles, stews, soups

Refreeze.

Discard

Fish, shellfish, breaded seafood products

Refreeze. However, there will be some texture and flavor     loss.

Discard

DAIRY

 

 

Milk

Refreeze. May lose some texture.

Discard

Eggs (out of shell) and egg products

Refreeze.

Discard

Ice cream, frozen yogurt

Discard

Discard

Cheese (soft and semi-soft)

Refreeze. May lose some texture.

Discard

Hard cheeses

Refreeze

Refreeze

Shredded cheeses

Refreeze

Discard

Casseroles containing milk, cream, eggs, soft cheeses

Refreeze

Discard

Cheesecake

Refreeze

Discard

FRUITS

 

 

Juices

Refreeze

Refreeze. Discard if mold, yeasty smell, or sliminess develops.

Home or commercially packaged

Refreeze. Will change texture and flavor

Refreeze. Discard if mold, yeasty smell, or sliminess develops.

VEGETABLES

 

 

Juices

Refreeze

Discard after held above 40° F for 6 hours.

Home or commercially packaged or blanched

Refreeze. May suffer texture and flavor loss

Discard after held above 40° F for 6 hours.

BREADS, PASTRIES

 

 

Breads, rolls, muffins, cakes (without custard fillings)

Refreeze

Refreeze

Cakes, pies, pastries with custard or cheese filling

Refreeze

Discard

Pie crusts, commercial and
homemade bread dough

Refreeze. Some quality loss can occur

Refreeze. Quality loss is considerable.

OTHER

 

 

Casseroles – pasta, rice based

Refreeze

Discard

Flour, cornmeal, nuts

Refreeze

Refreeze

Breakfast items –waffles, pancakes, bagles

Refreeze

Refreeze

Frozen meal, entree, specialty items (pizza, sausage and biscuit, meat pie,convenience foods)

Refreeze

Discard

Keeping_Food_Safe_During_an_Emergency.pdf

How to Get Rid of Bad Smells in Your Fridge

While it is not necessary that a natural disaster will lead to your fridge and freezer picking up a noxious odor, the fact remains that a long power outage where you cannot get back to your fridge freely or floodwaters will go a long way in generating that rotten egg / decaying meat smell. Unfortunately, your fridge is made of various plastics, compounds, rubberized linings and metal. It is the plastic elements and the rubberized section that retain the odor. The metallic portion can be scrubbed clean, but you cannot touch any electrical system for fear of damaging it.

More often than not, people do manage to get rid of the odor in a couple of days. There are always some tricky ones that will trouble you. It is a lengthy DIY process and perhaps the best option is given here. If the fridge is done in, then remove the door and dump the two separate portions of the dead fridge widely apart. This is a statutory law in the state of Michigan.

REFERENCES

This entry was posted in: Blog.

Economic Effects of Climate Change

Economic Effects of Climate Change

REPORT SUMMARY: Climate Change Background (causes, consensus), Impacts of Climate Change on Growth & Development, Estimated Costs in Developing Countries, Effects on Global Food Supply (agriculture, production), Diseases, Climate Change Policy, Technological Innovation, Carbon Tax, Low Carbon Economy

What is climate change?

Climatologists commonly refer to climate as the mean or average weather in a given place or region.

This description is usually stated in statistical forms showing variations such as averages and extremes. Climate comprises of humidity, patterns of temperature, wind, seasons, and rain or snow.  A recent science-based report shows that the quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other forms of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere continues to rise to such levels that the Earth get warmed resulting in a broad range of environmental effects such as melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, drought and wild fires, extreme storms, rainfall and floods.

source: http://climate.nasa.gov/scientific-consensus/

More resources:

Causes of Climate Change

The earth’s climate is naturally variable on all time scales. However, its long-term state and average temperature are regulated by the balance between incoming and outgoing energy, which determines the Earth’s energy balance.

Any factor that causes a sustained change to the amount of incoming energy or the amount of outgoing energy can lead to climate change.

As these factors are external to the climate system, they are referred to as ‘climate forcers’, invoking the idea that they force or push the climate towards a new long-term state – either warmer or cooler depending on the cause of change.

Different factors operate on different time scales, and not all of those factors that have been responsible for changes in earth’s climate in the distant past are relevant to contemporary climate change.

Factors that cause climate change can be divided into two categories ­- those related to natural processes and those related to human activity. In addition to natural causes of climate change, changes internal to the climate system, such as variations in ocean currents or atmospheric circulation, can also influence the climate for short periods of time. This natural internal climate variability is superimposed on the long-term forced climate change.

Natural Causes

The Earth’s climate can be affected by natural factors that are external to the climate system, such as changes in volcanic activity, solar output, and the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Of these, the two factors relevant on timescales of contemporary climate change are changes in volcanic activity and changes in solar radiation. In terms of the Earth’s energy balance, these factors primarily influence the amount of incoming energy. Volcanic eruptions are episodic and have relatively short-term effects on climate. Changes in solar irradiance have contributed to climate trends over the past century but since the Industrial Revolution, the effect of additions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere has been about ten times that of changes in the Sun’s output.

Human Causes

Climate change can also be caused by human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and the conversion of land for forestry and agriculture. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, these human influences on the climate system have increased substantially. In addition to other environmental impacts, these activities change the land surface and emit various substances to the atmosphere. These in turn can influence both the amount of incoming energy and the amount of outgoing energy and can have both warming and cooling effects on the climate.  The dominant product of fossil fuel combustion is carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The overall effect of human activities since the Industrial Revolution has been a warming effect, driven primarily by emissions of carbon dioxide and enhanced by emissions of other greenhouse gases.

The build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to an enhancement of the natural greenhouse effect.  It is this human-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect that is of concern because ongoing emissions of greenhouse gases have the potential to warm the planet to levels that have never been experienced in the history of human civilization. Such climate change could have far-reaching and/or unpredictable environmental, social, and economic consequences.

source: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/water.html

Short-lived and long-lived climate forcers

Carbon dioxide is the main cause of human-induced climate change. It has been emitted in vast quantities from the burning of fossil fuels and it is a very long-lived gas, which means it continues to affect the climate system during its long residence time in the atmosphere. However, fossil fuel combustion, industrial processes, agriculture, and forestry-related activities emit other substances that also act as climate forcers. Some, such as nitrous oxide, are long-lived greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, and so contribute to long-term climate change.

Other substances have shorter atmospheric lifetimes because they are removed fairly quickly from the atmosphere. Therefore, their effect on the climate system is similarly short-lived. Together, these short-lived climate forcers are responsible for a significant amount of current climate forcing from anthropogenic substances.

Some short-lived climate forcers have a climate warming effect (‘positive climate forcers’) while others have a cooling effect (‘negative climate forcers’).

If atmospheric levels of short-lived climate forcers are continually replenished by ongoing emissions, these continue to exert a climate forcing. However, reducing emissions will quickly lead to reduced atmospheric levels of such substances. A number of short-lived climate forcers have climate warming effects and together are the most important contributors to the human enhancement of the greenhouse effect after carbon dioxide.

This includes methane and tropospheric ozone – both greenhouse gases – and black carbon, a small solid particle formed from the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels (coal, oil and wood for example).

Other short-lived climate forcers have climate cooling effects, most notably sulphate aerosols. Fossil fuel combustion emits sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere (in addition to carbon dioxide) which then combines with water vapour to form tiny droplets (aerosols) which reflect sunlight.

Sulphate aerosols remain in the atmosphere for only a few days (washing out in what is referred to as acid rain), and so do not have the same long-term effect as greenhouse gases. The cooling from sulphate aerosols in the atmosphere has, however, offset some of the warming from other substances. That is, the warming we have experienced to date would have been even larger had it not been for elevated levels of sulphate aerosols in the atmosphere.

The Effects of Sea Level Rise and Climate Change

Strong evidence from scientific research obtained from core samples, tide gauge readings and satellite measurements show that global mean sea levels have been rising since the mid-19th century.

Available records indicate that during the 20th century, the global mean sea levels (GMSL) rose by about 15-20 centimeters which roughly equals 1.5 to 2.0 millimetre per year and the rate at which the GMSL increased towards the end of the 20th century was greater than at the early years of the century. The rate of increase of the GMSL in the first ten years of the 21st century has been found to be around 3.1 mm per year which is much higher than the average rate recorded for the 20th century.

Future projections estimate the GMSL to rise by around 1 meter by 2100 but if the rate at which Greenland ice sheet melt increases, sea level might rise by roughly 2 meters by 2100.

The three major processes leading to a rise in sea levels are:

  • Thermal expansion: Water expands normally as its temperature rises just like air and other fluids. Ocean temperature increases as climate change increases leading to sea level rise because of the expansion of its water through the application of heat (thermal expansion). Evidence suggests that thermal expansion could have contributed almost 2.5cm of sea level rise from mid-20th century. Projections by the IPCC in its Fourth Assessment suggests that sea levels will rise by about 17-28 cm (with an uncertainty rate of 50% plus or minus) over the 21st century.
  • Melting of glaciers and ice caps: Climate scientists say that melting of glaciers and ice caps are less likely contributors to sea level rise. The Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC estimated that the melting of mountain glaciers and ice caps in the second half of the 20th century increased sea level by around 2.5cm and projected that melting of ice and ice caps will lead about 10-12cm (plus or minus of one third) increase in sea level in the 21st century.
  • Loss of ice mass from the Greenland and West Antarctic sheets: The West Antarctic sheet retains an equivalent of 5 meters of sea level while the ice on Greenland holds around 7 meters of sea level. If all the ice on Greenland and the West Antarctic were to melt away completely in a process that could last for many centuries, both will contribute about 12 meters of sea level rise. The West Antarctic ice sheet is highly vulnerable because it is rooted below sea level. Though the East Antarctic ice sheet holds around 55 meters of sea level but it is less vulnerable to loss of its ice.

The potential impacts of these three processes include more rapid coastal erosion, rising water tables, changes in tidal prism, slat water intrusion into aquifers and surface waters, increased storm damage to coastal infrastructure, and changes in shoreline including the possibility that protective natural barriers will be lost totally. 

Ocean chemistry will definitely change when ocean level rises due to climate change. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could make water bodies to become more acidic and warmer sea water will have more carbon dioxide dissolved in it resulting in less oxygen. Sea level rise will cause harm to marine ecosystems, it will alter ocean’s biodiversity, and also affect the tiny plankton which produces much of the oxygen in the atmosphere.

More information on sea levels and climate change

The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change

There is an overwhelming level of scientific consensus on human-caused climate change. Over 95% of actively publishing climate scientists agree that the earth is warming and that human activity is the cause. In spite of this agreement, only about 50% the general public think that scientists have reached a consensus on human-caused climate change. Two sources of the discrepancy are the unbalanced portrayal of the situation in the media, and the Manufactured Doubt Industry. – source: http://www.wunderground.com/resources/climate/928.asp

    Climate Change and the Media

    According to a poll done by WorldPublicOpinion.org (WPO) after the 2010 election, 45% of voting Americans think that most scientists do not agree that climate change is occurring. WPO goes on further to estimate that this percentage has actually increased over the past ten years. A recent Pew study found that an overwhelming majority of Americans like science, have a positive regard for scientists, and think that science "contributes a lot to society’s well-being." So if there’s obvious consensus among scientists, why is that information not making it to the public?

    Never Rarely Once a week 2-3 times a week Almost every day
    Fox News 30 37 45 36 60
    CNN 51 40 39 25 25
    MSNBC 49 34 35 35 20
    Network TV news broadcasts 59 37 41 36 35
    Public Broadcasting (NPR or PBS) 49 41 36 21 13
    Newspapers & news magazines (in print or online) 48 43 41 24 40

     

    Table 1. Of people who responded that they agree with the statement "most scientists believe that global warming is not occurring," 60% watch Fox News almost every day. (Source)

    The Economics of Climate Change

    In their characteristic manner, economists generally weigh costs and damages. Therefore, economics of climate change focuses on identifying the economic implications of climate change and, hence, offer relevant, normative, and realistic policies for bringing the menace under control.

    Though the economics of climate change relates to other aspects of environmental economics but because of a number of factors such as the nature and extent of uncertainties involved with it, its distinctive and global nature, its international scope, its long term scale, and the possibilities of distributing policy benefits unevenly, it is often given a unique focus.

    Projections by Goulder and Pizer (2005) suggests that spending on energy infrastructure could exceed $16 trillion by 2030 leading to a rise in carbon emission by 60%. Therefore, the importance of looking at the economics of climate change now in order to develop the right choices for mitigating climate change cannot be overemphasized.

    In a working paper titled ‘Climate Change and Economic Growth’ and produced by the Commission on Growth and Development led by Nobel Laureate Mike Spence, the author, Robert Mendelsohn, remarked: ‘whereas the grim descriptions of the long term effects of climate change have led many to believe that the consequences of climate change will threaten long term economic growth but contrary to this impression, the impacts of climate change on the global economy will likely be very small over the next five decades and severe impacts by the end of the century is quite unlikely.’

    While this statement may sound quite puzzling, it does make a lot of sense to economists and to clarify further, the author says: ‘the greatest danger that climate change poses to the global economy in the long term arises from potentially excessive near-term mitigation efforts’ meaning that there is the need to keep up with the current global economic growth while allowing the greening of the economic growth strategy.

    The priority of many of the economists concerned with climate change advocate developing the ‘right economic choices’ for mitigating the potential impacts of the global phenomenon but this position is at variance with the views of scientists and environmentalists who advocate that more extreme mitigation policies be applied in the near term.

    The Impacts of Climate Change on Economic Growth and Development

    One of the main drivers of climate change is economic growth.

    As the demand for energy and goods that uses fossil fuels intensively increases, the economy expands and the quantity of greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere will also increase.

    However, economic growth may bring about a change in technological know-how leading to the inventions of more products that are energy efficient and, hence, slow down the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

    Some impacts of climate change are directly linked to market transactions and invariably affect gross domestic product (GDP) while some are non-market impacts because the effects could only be noticed on human health and ecosystems and not on market transactions.

    Climate change impacts that are market impacts could be measured as economic cost but it is difficult to calculate non-market impacts on an economic scale.

    The uncertainties in scientific measurement about how climate change will unfold makes estimating the economic impacts of climate change rather difficult. Nevertheless, economists have attempted making economic analysis of the potential impacts climate change would have on growth and development of a state and the global economy.

    • Smith et al., (2001) warns that climate change would further widen economic inequities between individuals and nations. Smith also says that a slight increase in global mean temperature of about 2oC over the 1990 levels could lead to net negative market sector and net positive market sector in many developing and developed nations respectively.
    • Pearce et al., (1996) suggests that based on available economic research, only a limited sector of the market economy such as agriculture, tourism, energy, coastal resources, forestry, and water is susceptible to climate change but in contrast, Stern (2006) claims that the entire global economy and the well-being of people across the globe may be at risk.
    • Mendelsohn (2009) reasoned that even if the impact of climate change turns out to be severe, it is doubtful if climate change can hurt the global economy that much since the sectors listed above make up around 5 percent of the global economy and it is expected that the share of each sector will shrink over time. The thinking is that most sectors of the global economy are not sensitive to climate change. However, Mendelsohn holds the view that on a comparison basis, the economies of some nations would be more susceptible to climate change when compared with the global average. Those countries that might be hit harder are countries that have a larger share of their economies in agriculture and forestry. In general, Mendelsohn says developing countries are more vulnerable. This is probably because many developing countries appear to be in the low geographical latitudes where the impacts of climate change on the market economy sectors earlier mentioned will be the most severe. Already, the major economic sectors of some countries in Africa have been noted to be vulnerable to observed changes in climate conditions meaning that future climate change could impact these countries further more. However, Smith et al., (2001: p. 940-941) predicted that a number of the developing nations would have the wherewithal to efficiently cope with the challenges of climate change.

    Though the uncertainties over climate sensitivities may pose difficulties in calculating the real economic impacts that climate change could have on growth and development yet analysts consider these uncertainties as the only important factor needed to determine the costs of carbon in the atmosphere, and, hence, climate sensitivity is important as an economic measure of climate change impacts.

    Low-income countries will remain on the frontline of human-induced climate change over the next century, experiencing gradual sea-level rises, stronger cyclones, warmer days and nights, more unpredictable rains, and larger and longer heatwaves, according to the most thorough assessment of the issue yet.

    East Africa can expect to experience increased short rains, while west Africa should expect heavier monsoons. Burma, Bangladesh and India can expect stronger cyclones; elsewhere in southern Asia, heavier summer rains are anticipated. Indonesia may receive less rainfall between July and October, but the coastal regions around the south China Sea and Gulf of Thailand can expect increased rainfall extremes when cyclones hit land.

    Estimates of the incremental costs of adaptation in developing countries ($bn per annum)

     
    Study 2010-2015 2010-2020 2030 2010-2050 Method
    World Development Report (2010) 30-100 Compiled several estimates of adaptation costs (including others in this list) with scenarios of 450ppm, 2005 US$
    World Bank EACC (2010) 70-100 Average annual adaptation costs from 2010 to 2050 in the agriculture, forestry, fisheries, infrastructure, water resource management, and coastal zone sectors, including impacts on health, ecosystem services, and the effects of extreme-weather events. In 2005 US$.
    Project Catayst (2009) 13-38 Estimates only public funding needs in vulnerable countries using costs from NAPAs, increased funding of public goods and disaster support. Assumes 450 stabilization, $1.25 to €1 exchange rate
    UNFCCC (2007) 27-67 Including: agriculture, forestry and fisheries, water supply, human health, coastal zones, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Excluded: mining and manufacturing, energy, retailing, tourism and ecosystems. In 2005 US$ between 450 and 550ppm
    Oxfam (2007) >50 Based on World Bank (2006), plus extrapolation of costs from NAPAs and NGO projects
    UNDP HDR (2007) 86-109 Builds on World Bank (2006), plus cost of adapting Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and strengthening disaster response
    World Bank (2006) 9-41 Costs of climate proofing ODA, foreign and domestic investment
    Stern Review (2006) 4-37 Aiming for 450ppm stabilisation

    source: http://www.climatefundsupdate.org/resources/estimated-costs-climate-change

    Additional Resources on The Economics of Climate Change:

    Economics of climate change

    The Impacts of climate change on growth and development

    How climate change will affect people around the world

    Implications of climate change on development

    Costs of climate change in developing countries

    Projecting the Growth of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    It is the standard practice of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to use future emissions projections of non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases as a basis for determining how cost-effective short-term mitigation alternatives and future policy can impact greenhouse gas emissions.

    This is because though carbon dioxide (CO2) are the main constituents of greenhouse gas emissions, there are other non-CO2 gases like nitrous oxide, methane, and fluorinated greenhouse gases that are major contributors to climate change. When considered on a per-ton basis, these non-CO2 greenhouse gases contribute more to climate change impacts than CO2 and some of these gases have significant effects on a short-term basis than carbon dioxide.

    There are series of reports published by EPA that projects the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. EPA usually provide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reports by gas and by sector.

    The sectors commonly reported include

    • transportation
    • energy
    • industrial processes
    • agriculture
    • land use
    • land-use change
    • waste
    • forestry

    source: http://www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/archive/archive-pdfs/trans-low-carbon-econ.pdf

    The common gases in most reports are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), nitrous oxide (N2O), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

    The quantities of future GHG levels are highly uncertain but there are a wide range of data illustrating emission projections that have been generated quantitatively. A number of emissions projections combined anthropogenic emissions as a single figure which is termed carbon dioxide equivalent (CDE). The CDE describes the quantity of global warming that could be caused by a given type of GHG by using the concentration of carbon dioxide as the reference.

    Using the baseline scenarios of emissions projection, it is projected that by 2030, there will be an increase of 25% and 90% in greenhouse emissions relative to the 2000 level.  It was also projected that for carbon dioxide only, two-thirds to three-quarters of the increase would be recorded in developing nations of the world.  But the same report also projected that the average per capita carbon dioxide emissions in developing nations would remain significantly lower than those in the developed world.

    The projections of carbon dioxide equivalents for 2100 varied from a reduction of about 40% to an increase in GHG emissions of 250% above the levels recorded for 2000.

     http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Projected_total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_between_2000-2100_using_the_six_illustrative_SRES_marker_scenarios.png
    Source: SRES Final Data (version1.1, July 2000)

    A research report says that the estimated total atmospheric concentration of long-lived greenhouse gas emissions was about 455 parts per million (ppm) of carbon dioxide equivalent .  When deduction is made for the effects of deforestation and other land-use changes and aerosol, then the physical effect which is also referred to as radiative forcing reduces the carbon dioxide equivalent to between 311 and 435 ppm. The estimate recorded for 2011 carbon dioxide equivalent concentrations is 473 ppm.

    Six of the IPCC’s (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) SRES emissions scenarios, that is the base line scenarios, have been used to project the possible future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations equivalent. For example, the emissions projections for 2100 has been fixed between 540 to 970 parts per million (ppm).

    More resources:

    Global Food Supply and Climate Change

    Though crops, livestock and fisheries depend on specific weather conditions, it is difficult to understand the overall effect that climate change could have on food supply.

    In some instances, slight warming and high concentration of carbon dioxide may help some crops to grow faster yet agricultural yields may reduce with severe warming and floods and drought can cause further damage to agriculture and, hence, reduce food supply.

    The potential effects that climate change could have on world food supply and security have been documented , and some of the risks posed by concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere include negative effects on grain, fruit crops, vegetable, livestock and fisheries among others.

    • Vietnam is one of the hot spots where climate change through potential global sea level rise threatens rice production.
    • The Yakima River which is in the south central and eastern Washington state annually produces mostly perennial crops valued around $1 billion but many of the crop growers around this basin have been facing water shortages. In fact, reduced water allocation from the Yakima Basin that occurred in 2001 led to economic losses worth between $140 million and $195 million.

    Some of the practical effects of climate change on agriculture and food supply include reduction in yields, the need to deploy irrigation more than before, decreased arability; he possibility that insect and pests may reproduce more when the atmosphere becomes warmer, delay in planting and harvesting, and untold risks to fisheries.

    It’s not economic development that matters in this case, it’s the location on the surface of the Earth. Without better crop varieties or other agricultural technology improvements, irrigated wheat yields, for example, will fall at least 20 percent by 2050 as a result of global warming, and south Asia as well as parts of sub-Saharan Africa will face the worst effects.

    Potential Effects of Climage Change on Agriculture and Food Production

    The potential effects that climate change could have on agriculture and food production are many. For example, the rate of production of food crops, livestock, and dairy yields, may decline when temperature rises or due to drought-related stress. Several parts of the world that have been depending on natural and regular supply of water from rainfall each year during planting seasons may now require artificial supply of water through irrigation leading to higher costs for the farmers and possibly communal conflict when access to water becomes a battle for the fittest.

    In another scenario, climate change may make warmer conditions to shift to higher latitudes, where the soil lack adequate nutrients that could support crop production, making farmers to contend for lower-latitude areas that are less productive. Also, if the seasonal rainfall patterns continues to be irregular due to climate change, that could lead to more severe precipitation events such as flooding resulting in delay in planting and harvesting agricultural crops.

    The IBSNAT crop models were used to estimate how climate change and increasing levels of carbon dioxide may alter yields of world crops at 112 sites in 18 countries. (Figure 9.1). The crop models used were CERES-Wheat (Ritchie and Otter, 1985; Godwin et al., 1989), CERES-Maize (Jones and Kiniry, 1986; Ritchie et al., 1989), CERES-Rice (Godwin et al., 1993) and SOYGRO (Jones et al., 1989).

    The IBSNAT models are comprised of parameterizations of important physiological processes responsible for plant growth and development, evapotranspiration, and partitioning of photosynthate to produce economic yield. The simplified functions enable prediction of growth of crops as influenced by the major factors that affect yields, i.e., genetics, climate (daily solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperatures, and precipitation), soils, and management practices. The models include a soil moisture balance submodel so that they can be used to predict both rainfed and irrigated crop yields. The cereal models simulate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on crop growth, and these were studied in several countries in the context of climatic change. For the most part, however, the results of this study assume optimum nutrient levels.

    The IBSNAT models were selected for use in this study because they have been validated over a wide range of environments (e.g., Otter-Nacke et al., 1986) and are not specific to any particular location or soil type. The validation of the crop models over different environments also improves their ability to estimate effects of changes in climate. Furthermore, because management practices, such as the choice of varieties, planting date, fertilizer application and irrigation, may be varied in the models, they permit experiments that simulate adaptation by farmers to climate change.

    Insect and Pests

    The problem that insect and pests constitute may be higher when the atmosphere becomes warmer on a prolonged term because they are known to survive or even reproduce more rapidly each year if the warm weather conditions persist.

    Crop growers in Canada and the NE Washington know that this is already happening because pine bark beetles are multiplying rapidly and are causing devastation to large tracts of forests .

    Migration of insect and pests from one region to another is possible when climate changes leading to changes in humidity and temperatures.

    Commercial fisheries may also be affected when different type of fishes shift from one region to the other in response to changes in weather conditions and temperature.

    Really, the threats of global food supply won’t affect countries and regions of the world equally. If a country loses its arable land due to climate change, the resources or favorable weather to pursue cost-effective alternatives and maintain its food security may be lacking. Though we hope that advancement in technology would bring succour to humanity in the worst case scenarios of climate change but since some countries are more susceptible to unfavorable international trade agreements than others, food distribution may be disrupted in some parts of the world.

    Additional resources:

    Climate Change and Diseases

    The health effects of climate change is one of the most important nonmarket impacts of climate change.

    Stress induced by a rise in heat level may increase heat strokes, dehydration, and deaths resulting from changes in weather . Allergies and respiratory health may also be triggered by climate change .

    Vector borne diseases (VBD) often thrive more rapidly due to the effects of climate change. Life-cycles of pathogens can be affected by changes in climate. For example, drought and hot summer temperatures have been found to rapidly increase the number of West Nile virus incidents. California could be at risk of a break out of exotic vectors like those responsible for yellow fever and dengue fever if raining season gets unduly prolonged.  

    In addition, VBDs may cross geographical boundaries and extend beyond current ranges making more people to be at risk of contracting VBD. Extreme events occasioned by severe changes in climate could threaten lives and where people fail to adapt, untold suffering may occur.

    The deadly dozen that may increse due to climate change:

    • Bird flu: H5N1 infections are becoming the rule rather then the exception in farmed poultry worldwide, and even wild birds are showing signs of infection more often. It has forced the culling of millions of ducks, chickens and geese globally—and has killed more than 240 people—resulting in at least $100 billion in economic losses.
    • Babesiosis: This malarialike disease carried by ticks is endemic in the tropics, but has cropped up everywhere from Italy to Long Island, N.Y. It is rare in humans at present and seldom deadly (treatable with antibiotics) but may become more problematic as the globe warms, providing more welcoming environments.
    • Cholera: This bacterium thrives in warmer waters and causes diarrhea so severe that it can kill within a week. Without improved sanitation, rising global temperatures will increase deadly outbreaks.
    • Ebola: This virus is lethal to humans and other primates, and has no cure. In addition, it is unclear where the disease, which causes fever, vomiting and internal or external bleeding, comes from—though scientists suspect fruit bats. What is clear is that outbreaks tend to follow unusual downpours or droughts in central Africa—a likely result of climate change.
    • Parasites: Many spread easily between humans, livestock and wildlife. Higher average temperatures and more rainfall will help many parasites, such as the tiny worms known as Baylisascaris procyonis that are spread by raccoons, to thrive in the wild before finding a host.
    • Lyme disease: This bacterium-caused disease will spread as climate changes extend the ranges of the ticks that carry it.
    • Plague: Changes in temperature and rainfall will affect rodent populations globally as well as the infected fleas they carry.
    • "Red tides": Poisonous algal blooms in coastal waters may increase as a result of warming temperatures or changes in littoral sea life.
    • Rift Valley fever: A newly emergent virus, carried by mosquitoes that causes fever and weakness, has spread quickly through Africa and the Middle East, killing people, along with camels, cattle, goats and sheep.
    • Tuberculosis: Both the human and livestock varieties of TB are likely to increase, particularly the latter as droughts bring livestock and wildlife into closer proximity at watering holes.
    • Yellow fever: Mosquitoes spread this disease, which causes fever and jaundicelike symptoms, between wildlife and humans, and will likely spread into new areas as the climate changes.

    More resources:

    Climate Change Policy

    Evolving a climate change policy that works can take many forms that includes individual action, political action government action and actions of watchdogs like the environmental protection agency (EPA).

    The EPA is saddled with many responsibilities that include:

    • collecting and publishing emissions data
    • developing regulatory framework geared towards promoting a clean energy economy
    • gathering and evaluating policy options
    • forming international partnership towards advancing minimizing carbon footprint
    • advancing the science

    This agency also helps communities prepare for climate change and how adapt to it.

    In 1988 the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) set up theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an expert body that would assess scientific information on climate change. As a reaction to the concerns raised in the IPCC’s First Assessment Report the UN General Assembly established the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in May 1992 and entered into force in 1994. The convention included the commitment to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by 2000.

    Agreed in 1997, the UNFCCC’s Kyoto Protocol is a first step towards achieving more substantial global emission reductions. It sets binding emission targets for developed countries that have ratified it, such as the EU Member States, and limits the emission increases of the remaining countries for the first commitment period from 2008 to 2012. The 15 pre-2004 EU Member States (the EU-15) have a joint emission reduction target of 8 % below 1990 levels. Through the internal EU "burden-sharing agreement", some EU Member States are permitted increases in emissions, while others must decrease them. Most Member States that joined the EU after 1 May 2004 have targets of -6 % to -8 % from their base years (mostly 1990).

    Individual Action on Climate Change

    The individual action involves making various choices that limit and/or reduce the potential impacts posed by climate change on our environment. For example, choosing a diet low on carbon will minimize carbon footprint on the long run.

    A research report gave an estimate of the carbon footprint from the U.S. food system to be about 20 percent of the aggregate of the greenhouse emissions from the entire nation.  This estimate might be very conservative since it was based on the direct sources in the U.S. without considering food imported into the U.S. Industrial meat, industrially produced food and dairy among others constitute high carbon diet. The carbon footprint for food is not only measured based on waste of food but also on the entire chain involving production, processing, packaging, transport, and the actual stages involved with the preparation of food.

    Vegan Choices: A report by the United Nations Environment Programme advocated a shift from high carbon food choices to vegan diet where less fossil fuel would be required to complete the chain from production to the point where the consumer prepares the food and, hence, less carbon dioxide will be released to the atmosphere.

    Political Actions on Climate Change

    There are many ways political action could be deployed to save the Earth from carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

    • Direct lobbying
    • Protests
    • Letters to representatives
    • laws on greenhouse gas emissions limits
    • Tax incentives
    • Regulations that specify market-based approaches and grant economic incentives for controlling emissions of pollutants
    • Government policies

    The U.S. and the Challenge of Climate Change Policy

    Recently President Barack Obama endorsed a long-term measure meant to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases considerably by 2050 to 80% below the levels recorded in 1990.

    The American Clean Energy and Security Act which target 2050 and advocate for 83% reduction below 2005 levels was recently passed by the U.S. House but the bill has not yet received the consent of the U.S. Senate.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues its regulatory duties on environmental issues with a new regulatory framework on minimizing carbon footprint launched in 2011.

    In addition, several billion dollars are being proposed by the Obama administration towards developing green energy technologies to help mitigate the effects of climate change.

    More Resources:

    Climate Change Technological Innovation

    Experts have claimed that embracing technological innovation can reduce the cost of minimizing the impacts of climate change. Egg heads in Silicon Valley are working round the clock to discover cheap and reliable clean energy that would reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

    Concerted efforts are being made to design technological systems that would make one of the commonest green energy options – solar, wind or nuclear – energy relatively cheap and reliable.

    Some of the technological innovations:

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development suggests

    Provision of long-term policy signals that are sustainable to enable potential innovators and adopters of climate mitigating technologies gain the confidence to embark on the investments.

    Placing a price on greenhouse gas emissions through tradable permits or taxes to provide incentives to complete the stages of the innovative idea.

    Provision of a mix of relevant policy measures to strengthen innovators to face all barriers to the development and diffusion of all climate change limiting technologies.

    Innovation in the energy sector

    The way in which some of these basic principles of innovation play out in practice varies radically between different sectors. Information technology and pharmaceuticals, for example, are both characterized by high degrees of innovation, with rapid technological change financed by private investment amounting typically to 10-20% of sector turnover (Neuhoff, 2005). However this offers a dramatic contrast with power generation, for example, where the same fundamental technology has dominated for almost a century and private sector RD&D has fallen sharply with privatisation of energy industries to the point where it is under 0.4% of turnover (Margolis and Kammen,1999).

    There may be several reasons for this low inherent innovation-intensity. Processing large amounts of energy may inherently involve big capital investment and long timescales, which naturally increases risk and deters private finance; each stage in the innovation chain can take a decade, and diffusion is equally slow. Perhaps more fundamentally however, the R&Dintensive sectors (like IT and pharmaceuticals) are ones in which competition is essentially all around product differentiation (a better computer / mobile phone; a better drug) whereas innovation in power generation is basically about efficiency and price in delivering the same product (electrons). This is a far weaker driver. And compared to a new product that captures public imagination and commands a large market combined with a high price premium, price-based competition has dramatically less scope for offsetting big risks against the prospect of huge rewards.

    More Resources on climate change and technological innovation:

    Creating a Global Price for Carbon

    Carbon pricing which is also known as cap-and –trade is the climate change mitigating measure most preferred by business leaders and economists .

    This strategy of curbing greenhouse emissions is hinged on the idea that those who emit carbon dioxide and pollute the atmosphere should be made to pay a price for their actions. Carbon pricing is either a direct carbon tax or an allowance paid for permits to emit carbon. Where a permit is granted, it is tradable privately and emissions are limited to the cap (the total number of permits granted), hence, carbon pricing is also cap-and-trade system of minimizing carbon emissions.

    A few international businesses like Walmart, Google and Shell have started introducing the use of internal carbon pricing into their investment planning as an incentive and a tool for strategic planning that could give them competitive edge in the long-term. Though internal carbon pricing being practiced now by a few global companies won’t significantly lead to a reduction in global emissions yet it is a good decision that would create significant impact if embraced on scale.

    Monetary Value of Carbon Emissions

    A recent World Bank report shows that 39 national and 23 sub-national jurisdictions have implemented or about to implement carbon pricing strategies that includes carbon taxes and emissions trading systems. In addition, the global emissions trading schemes have been estimated to be worth around $30 billion with the second largest carbon pricing market now sited in China with about 1,115 million tons of CO2 emissions.

    The World Bank reported the total value of the global carbon market to be $176 billion in 2011 which illustrates a rapid growth rate from $11 billion reported for 2005 . Countries, companies and sub-national jurisdictions around the world are being encouraged by the World Bank to be a part of the growing movement that supports carbon pricing.

    More resources on pricing carbon

    Transitioning to a Low Carbon Economy

    There are great opportunities and enormous challenges ahead as the world strives to transition to a low-carbon economy. In the first instance, the emerging eco-friendly technological innovations will present an opportunity for commercialization which can further catalyze global economic growth while also carving out a niche market.

    On the other hand, it will require a significant capital investment to transition from the present state where the global economy is largely dependent on carbon energy supply. The challenge is even greater when we consider the extent of the transition we will have to undergo from our present state.

    To give you an order of magnitude of the capital required, the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates we need $10.5 trillion in incremental investment globally in low-carbon energy technologies and energy efficiency by 2030. This estimate is across all sectors, including power, transport, residential and commercial building equipment, and industrial sectors, in order to limit global temperature increases to 2 degrees Celsius, the threshold that the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified as necessary for “avoiding catastrophic climate change.”

    The literature after the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report explored in much more depth the role of technological change in economic modelling and how policies might induce and accelerate such change. The models suggest that international coordination could lead to faster technological change and more benefits. In particular, the Innovation Modelling Comparison Project (IMCP)1 co-ordinated modelling teams in a study of the achievement of 450 ppm CO2-only stabilisation, which (under special assumptions about the abatement of the non-CO2 GHGs) can be converted to 550 ppm CO2-e. The key feature of the study is that it compared scenarios with and without induced technological change (ITC).

    source: http://www.theclimategroup.org/_assets/files/Macroeconomics-effects-of-the-Low-Carbon-Economy.pdf

    There are three central aspects of the problem:

    Urgency – the critical constraint on avoiding a 2ºC degree warming will be the time taken to develop and deploy the industries of the low-carbon economy.

    The Catch 22 of low-carbon industrial development – many zero and low emission commodities are currently low volume and therefore high cost. They will naturally increase in volume and decrease in cost – even to the point of being cheaper than fossil fuels (as has already occurred with solar hot water, biomass and wind power in several countries). But the issue of urgency means that this process has to be short-circuited so that high volumes are developed and deployed even at high cost.

    Developing countries are where the climate challenge will be won or lost, but the deployment of high cost, low-carbon solutions represents a real opportunity cost compared to short term poverty eradication, and a competitive disadvantage to third party funders.

    Addtional resources, papers and discussion on transition to low carbon economy:

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    This entry was posted in: Blog.

World Food Day: 16 October 2014

World Food Day: 16 October 2014  

IN THE REPORT: Inequalities of Food Distribution, FAO (purpose, history, progress), Global Undernourishment, Climate Change and Food, Future Food Systems, World Food Day 2014

Land Mass vs The Population Density

  • The total land area of all continents is 148,429,630 square kilometers (57,308,738 sq mi), or 29.1% of Earth’s surface (510,067,450 km2 or 196,937,240 sq mi).
  • The inhabitable portion of Earth is only 43 percent of its land mass, 63,824,740 sq km (24,642,584 sq mi).
  • The total population of all seven continents is an estimated 7.12 billion as of mid-2014 and global population density works out to 111.55 per km2.

In other words, each person on earth has as much as 8,965 sq m to live in, discounting the use of land for any purpose. That seems a lot, but is hardly the case in real life as explained later.

Ancient Greek sailors predate the Roman and it fell to their lot to name the land masses they came across. They named such land masses on either side of the waterways of the Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea as Asia and Africa. The Aegean Sea was the center of their world; anything to the east was Asia, to the north and west Europe, and to the south, Africa.

Population Density

The popular seven-continent view is best suited to show how population density is to be considered when relating food availability to the number of people to feed.

The first factor to consider is their relative population density. Asia is the most densely populated continent, housing a large number of people who do not get two square meals a day. Europe, with very high population density, has no such problems. The deduction is simple: better education and knowledge of optimal crop growing and livestock rearing techniques make for a better output, leading to self sufficiency in food.

Most of Black Africa is in dire straits. North America has surplus food and is the largest exporter of foodgrain. It is also the largest donor of such foodgrain as well as processed food, like powdered milk, to various countries affected by famine, whether sporadic, regular or otherwise. South America is comprised of too many countries to be as magnanimous as its northern neighbor.

Population Density Chart

A chart of population density as of today is given below, as Chart 1, followed by charts on Continental data as Charts 2 and 3.


CONTINENT

POPULATION

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION

LAND MASS IN KM2

POPULATION DENSITY PER KM2

ASIA

4,264,252,000

60.00%

44,579,000

98.4

AFRICA

1,072,234,000

15.00%

30,065,000

35.67

NORTH AMERICA

562,056,000

8.00%

24,256,000

23.3

SOUTH AMERICA

402,555,000

6.00%

17,819,000

23.2

ANTARCTICA

5,000

0.00%

13,209,000

0

EUROPE

778,199,000

11.00%

9,938,000

76.44

AUSTRALIA

30,127,000

0.40%

7,687,000

3.2

TOTAL

7,119,428,000

100%

148,429,000

48.18

Chart 1: Population Percentage and Density

Chart 2: Continents as a Percentage of Land Mass                                                                           

Chart 3: Comparison of Intra-continental Area (by Tens of Millions of Sq Km) and Population (Billions of People)

Child Mortality Rate

Eons back, there was sufficient food for everybody. As population grew, so did food production, since the numbers and quantities required remained very low. Child mortality was high since there were no medical facilities to speak of. Longevity was also low, and many people died in their prime in epidemics of untreatable diseases like malaria, smallpox, bubonic plague, tuberculosis and others. Famines and droughts, though prevalent, were a rarity. Women were married at puberty and gave birth at 13-14 years; people were considered old at 40 and 55-60 years was a ripe old age to die at.

Matters, as they stand today, are becoming alarmingly grave in a perverse but necessary perspective. Consider child mortality. Child mortality is the death of a child below five years of age and is often called Under-5 mortality. Close to 50 percent of child deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Chart 4.  Child Mortality in Millions

Improved medical care and technology is reducing child mortality. The same improved medical care and technology is permitting aging people to live longer, so that the number of mouths to feed is increasing. There are two ways of looking at this. The first is joyful, happily so. And the second?

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

History of the FAO

Each successful birth and each successful life extended translates into the snipping off of lebensraum, living space. The global average works out to 234,200 additional lives per day. Whether these people are rural or urban is of little consequence, since they require both food and shelter. Where can this food and land come from? More food requires more arable land. Going vertical is only a part-time solution to reduce loss of land to housing, and will create immense infrastructural complexities to solve in the cities that go vertical. Paris, London, Delhi, most metros and several US cities already have severe parking problems. People will need more water for drinking, washing and bathing and more piped gas for cooking. In the final analysis, the extra land required will come from farm land, one way or the other. This means that the arable land required to grow foodstuff will keep reducing day by day. The world would be better off if it could revert to the population numbers prevailing in 1900 AD, insofar as the food situation is concerned, without being as acerbic as Eric R. Pianka, “For everyone presently on this planet to enjoy the lifestyle of an average American, we would need about ten planet Earths. We have only one. For everyone to live like an American, Earth can only support about one-tenth as many people. To increase the average quality of life, the number of people on Earth must be reduced.” Fortunately, most US citizens have a balanced and rational opinion. The point here is that the American way of life is considered the global standard, to be emulated in toto.   

This matter of hunger did not go unnoticed. Most of Africa and South Asia was found to be undernourished, after acquiring and assessing relevant statistics in 1935, when the ‘marriage of health and agriculture’ was first promulgated at the League of Nations. Just before being dragged into WW II, the US did forge a general plan to look into global hunger and attempt to assuage it. However, it was only after WW II ended that the US could relook at its past venture. Late in 1945, the United Nations set up a committee to look into the global food situation and what the pressing needs were. The driving force behind this movement came from the USA and Canada. The date was 16 October and the committee The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The venue was Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; the number of participating countries: 42. This is an important date to remember.

The General Rules of the Organization stated that the seat of the Organization would be situated at the same place as the headquarters of the United Nations Organization. Pending a decision regarding the headquarters of the UN, the headquarters of the Organization was to be in Washington.

The United Nations was founded eight days after FAO, in New York. It then became clear to the FAO hierarchy that the huge metropolitan centre would not suit an organization that dealt with or would be dealing with food, fisheries, agriculture and forestry. A different site therefore had to be found, and the General Rule changed. It took four years, till the FAO Conference in end 1949, for a final decision to be made. Nobody wanted to leave the Big Apple, but the HQ reluctantly moved to Rome by 1951. Interestingly, even the Gods did not like the idea of the move, since one of its ships, carrying 15 percent of FAO equipment, was all but wrecked in a storm over the Atlantic.

The Purpose of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

The FAO is the designated agency of the United Nations tasked with leading international efforts to battle hunger at its source and overcome it so that every human being sees fructification of his right to live. The FAO’s long term aim is to achieving food security for all– to make sure people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives. Their three main goals were:

  • Eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition
  • Elimination of poverty and the driving forward of economic and social progress for all
  • Sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including land, water, air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of present and future generations.

Decentralization of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Early in the 1990s, the FAO embarked on its most highly goal oriented study: To check whether there was any barrier to both vertical and lateral communications, the fundamental objective being to bridge and close gaps and take FAO as close as possible to its members. This called for the widest-ranging reorganization since its founding. The allied problem to be solved was that reorganization was not possible without a decentralized structure, a management system with increased delegation of authority, and an environment that encouraged creativity and initiative. While decentralization has its pros, in this specific case, FAO found that it was overspending in certain areas, at times duplicating effort and cost. After verifying that lack of proper integration was indeed costing them €35 million per year in 1994, FAO decentralized its departments and offices.

 

THE 7 DEPARTMENTS OF THE FAO

THE 7 OFFICES OF THE FAO

1

Agriculture and Consumer Protection

Corporate Communications and External Relations

2

Corporate Services, Human Resources and Finance

Evaluation

3

Economic and Social Development

Inspector-General

4

Fisheries and Aquaculture

Knowledge Exchange

5

Forestry

Research and Extension

6

Natural Resources Management and Environment

Strategy Planning, Resource Management and Support

7

Technical Cooperation

Decentralisation

  Chart 5: The Departments and Offices of FAO

Further Decentralization

  • Regional Offices: Regional Offices were created for Africa, in Accra, Ghana; for Asia and the Pacific, in Bangkok, Thailand; for Europe and Central Asia, in Budapest, Hungary; for Latin America and the     Caribbean, in Santiago, Chile and for the Near East, in Cairo, Egypt (moved to Rome in 1956 due Suez War).
  • Sub-regional Offices: Sub-regional Office were created for Central Africa in Libreville, Gabon; for Central America in Panama City, Panama; for Central and Eastern Europe in Budapest, Hungary; for Central Asia in Ankara, Turkey; for Eastern Africa in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; for North Africa in Tunis, Tunisia, for Southern Africa and East Africa in Harare, Zimbabwe; for the Caribbean in Bridgetown, Barbados; for the Pacific Islands in Apia, Samoa and for Western Africa in Accra, Ghana.
  • Liaison Offices: Liaison Offices were created for North America, in Washington, D.C.; with Japan, in Yokohama; with the European Union and Belgium, in Brussels; with the United Nations, in Geneva and with the United Nations, in New York (ibid).

Their strategic objectives were relooked at and expanded as listed below:

Expanded Objectives of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  • Help Eliminate Hunger, Food Insecurity and Malnutrition.

FAO realized that there was sufficient global capacity to grow enough foodstuffs to feed everyone adequately; yet, despite the progress made since 1994, 842 million people still suffer from chronic hunger.

Global Undernourishment Problem

  • One person in nine goes hungry.
  • Among children, about 162 million children below the age of five years are malnourished.

Micronutrient deficiencies, or eating food with no nutritive values affect over two billion people worldwide, hindering human and socio-economic development and causal to the vicious cycle of malnutrition and underdevelopment. At the other end of the scale, around 500 million people are obese. The loss to mankind is huge, when malnutrition hampers productivity, health, well-being, the ability to learn, all seen as  reduced fulfillment of human potential.

Number and Percentage of Undernourished Persons


PERIOD

NUMBERS IN MILLIONS

PERCENTAGE

GLOBAL POPULATION

1990-1992                   

1015 

19%

5432   Billion

2000-2002

957

15%

6380   Billion

2005-2007

907

14%

6479   Billion

2008-2010

878

13%

6754   Billion

2011-2013

842

12%

7016   Billion

    Chart 6

UNDERNOURISHMENT CASE STUDY

The South-South Cooperation (SSC) Program

During the past decade, over 600 Chinese experts and technicians have been deployed in Nigeria to share their agricultural skills with local farmers. The South-South Cooperation (SSC) program, which has been fully funded by the Government of Nigeria and facilitated by the FAO, has benefited over one million people. The introduction of a wide range of technologies, from fish cage culture to drip irrigation, intensive poultry production to apiculture, has increased productivity and rural incomes. It is also helping the Government achieve the objectives of its Agricultural Transformation Agenda, which seeks to increase production, reduce food imports and provide millions of new jobs for young people. Nigeria has allocated significant resources from its annual budget amounting to US$ 42 million in support of the first five-year phase (2003–2007) of the SSC project implementation. During this first phase a total of 496 Chinese experts and technicians were deployed to 36 states in Nigeria. Based on the achievements recorded in the first phase, the Federal Government of Nigeria approved the continuation of the program and launched the second phase of five years in 2009 at a cost of US$ 19.6 million. The second phase has the same objective of assisting Nigeria develop its agricultural sector through the introduction of simple and low-cost Chinese agricultural technologies to farmers. Information provided by the states suggested that over one million people have been trained on the use of various technologies introduced by the SSC program.

Making Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries More Productive and Sustainable

Global population is expected to increase to 9 billion by 2050. The highest rates of growth are expected to occur in areas that depend heavily on their crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries, yet cannot reduce the prevailing rates of food insecurity. Improved agricultural output is the best method of cutting down poverty while acquiring food security. Innovation is needed in this sector to increase productivity, preserve natural resources using inputs effectively. Such an approach will need collective participation of small holders, women, locals and marginalized groups. The odds may seem stacked against the small or family farmer, but it is a battle that, when guided properly, can be won.

Natural resources, such as oceans, land mass and water are a constant entity, and the more forward looking will quickly harness their latent potential. Labor presently available for production will reduce as lifestyle changes take place in rural areas. Continuous changes in practices will foster new or mutated pests and diseases. Climate change will degrade natural resources and impact the agriculture sector. Since these are a source of concern to FAO, its vision looks across this entire sector to focus on:

  • increasing efficiency, achieving higher productivity at a reduced volume of input.
  • managing ecological as well as economic risks linked to production systems in the agricultural sector, including vermin, illnesses and climate change;
  • identifying how ecosystem services work as well as their inputs to environmental conservation and enhancing them.
  • facilitating access to new technologies.
  • Reduce rural poverty

The rural poor are day-to-day provenders, family farmers, landless agricultural hands and include fisherfolk, nomads who raise livestock on natural pastures and forest-dependent people with no or limited access to productive means. Hunger and food insecurity are known expressions of rural poverty and the majority of the world’s destitute live in rural areas. Reducing rural poverty becomes central to FAO’s mission. FAO has been instrumental in lifting many rural areas out of poverty over the past decades. In 1990, 54% of people living in rural areas in developing countries survived on less than $1.25 a day. By 2010, this number was brought down to 35%. Even today, rural poverty is endemic in South Asia and Africa. Getting more humans out of rural poverty is essential to retain the dignity of mankind; it is a vital ingredient of sustainable food security.

Enabling Inclusive and Efficient Agricultural and Food Systems

A side effect of globalization has been the inclusion of Agriculture in a high-tech Supply Chain Management (SCM) system. Apart from convoluting the push-pull balance of demand by Less Developed Countries, the SCM is threatening to isolate small players from the chain by elevating the threshold to levels beyond their economic capability. The roots of hunger lie in inequalities in access to resources. Right now, many farmers in poor countries—the people who grow the food the world relies on—don’t have the power to access the resources they need to thrive. As agriculture becomes more techno and capital intensive, undereducated players are seeing their dim hopes receding even further. Against this setting, FAO is trying to intercede on behalf of the smaller players to help them address the new challenges they have to face across the value chain.

Increasing Resilience of Livelihoods from Disasters

Natural disasters like earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, pests and disease outbreaks, droughts, etc., have occurred since Noah’s days, but climate change seems to be increasing their frequency and power. So far, humanitarian agencies were required to focus primarily on disaster relief. A new paradigm is needed that emphasizes reducing risks to enhance resilience to shocks. This approach, requiring bottom to top action from local to global levels through their country, intends to make sure that humanity can forecast, cope with and bounce back from all setbacks efficiently and sustainably. And we can do without unwanted additions like wars!
The World Food Day Since Inception

In a concept of capsule plans on a yearly basis, it was decided in the 1945 to move towards removal of rural poverty in small steps, with a meeting every year where progress would be highlighted, areas of failure identified and remedial measures instituted while setting up the targets for the following year. In 1979, it was decided to bring global problems to the forefront and make the public at large aware of happenings on the food front. One issue to be highlighted was that a war in any part of the world would be detrimental to the global cause. Regrettably, countries flush with money from oil production and sale took little heed of the noble cause, secure in the knowledge that could buy their food, cost irrespective.

It was also decided that the 16th of October of every year starting 1981 would be known as The World Food Day of that year.

Year

FAO Global Theme and Materials

U.S. Teleconference Theme

2014

Family Farming : “Feeding the world, caring for the earth”

 

2013

Sustainable food systems for food security and nutrition

2012

Agricultural cooperatives – key to feeding the world

2011

Food prices – from crisis to stability

2010

United against hunger

2009

Achieving food security in times of crisis

2008

World Food Security: challenges of climate change & bioenergy

Choices for a Warm and Hungry Planet

2007

The right to food

Climate: Changes, Challenges and Consequences

2006

Investing in agriculture for food security

Power of the People: Bottom-up Solutions to Hunger

2005

Agriculture and intercultural dialogue

Reflections on Fighting Hunger: Roads not Taken; Goals not Met; The Journey Ahead

2004

Biodiversity for food security

Politics of Hunger: What’s at Stake?

2003

Working together for an International Alliance to End Hunger

Collaboration or Calamity: Africa in Peril

2002

Water: Source of Food Security

Hungry Farmers:  A National Security Issue for all

2001

Fight Hunger to Reduce Poverty

World Food System: Serving Some or Serving All

2000

A Millennium Free from Hunger

Poverty and Hunger: The Tragic Link

1999

Youth Against Hunger

Tomorrow’s Farmers: An Uncertain Future

1998

Women Feed the World

Food for All: Right or Goal

1997

Investing in Food Security

World Food Summit: Promises and Prospects

1996

Fighting Hunger and Malnutrition

People Power: Harvest of Hope

1995

Food for All

Fighting Hunger: Looking Back. Looking Ahead

1994

Water for Life

Sharing Water: Farms, Cities and Ecosystems

1993

Harvesting Nature’s Diversity

Seeds of Conflict: Biodiversity and Food Security

1992

Food and Nutrition

Nutrition: Linking Food. Health and Development

1991

Trees for life

The Hunger Puzzle

1990

Food for the future

Food for the Future: Science. Policy and Ethics

1989

Food and the environment

Food,  Environment and Development

1988

Rural youth

Global Food Security: Focus on Africa

1987

Small farmers

Right to Food: From Awareness to Action

1986

Fishermen and fishing communities

Hunger Amidst Plenty

1985

Rural Poverty

Food & Poverty: Perspectives. Policies. Prospects.

1984

Women in Agriculture

1984 – World Food Conference – Ten Years Later

1983

Food Security

 

1982

Food Comes First

1981

Food Comes First

Chart 7  Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Food_Day/ & / http://www.worldfooddayusa.org/about_us

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 1945-1979

WW II had destroyed agricultural production across billions of acres. Factories related thereto were destroyed or switched to make armament. Existing channels in the global distribution of agriculture-related products were either obliterated or disrupted. FAO was struggling in extremely difficult times, along with the reconstruction of nations as existential, per se. Seen dispassionately, nothing seemed to be happening on the FAO front, other than lip service. It was only after the Vietnam War had run its course that the US could increase focus on internal issues.

The principal drivers behind FAO have remained the USA and Canada, with other advanced nations chipping in. The USA was busy fighting wars on other countries’ territories for various reasons or organizing their reconstruction. A major chunk of its finances was lost there, with internal repercussions and reduced aid to countries it had pledged assistance to. A timeline 1945-1979 is listed below:

  • 1945 – 55. US forces present in China, Japan, Philippines, Austria.  
  • 1945–49 – Occupation of part of Germany, countering the USSR threat.
  • 1945–49 – Post-World War II occupation of South Korea; North Korean insurgency in Republic of Korea. 1947 sees India and Pakistan becoming independent.
  • 1950–53 – Korean War.
  • 1950–55 – Formosa (Taiwan).
  • 1955–64 – Vietnam.
  • 1959–75 – Vietnam War. This war is now seen as unnecessary and extremely expensive in terms of finance and human lives. 20 years were spent in a lost cause, since South Vietnam has ceased

to exist. Ironically, USA assisted in the Vietnamization, or bonding, of the two separate halves.

  • 1962–75 – Laos.
  • 1970 – Cambodian Campaign.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): 1981-2013

American intervention in the affairs of other nations reduced to external support, though some wars were either forced or prolonged. Technology cut down action periods from years to weeks! Some operations conducted are listed below:

  • 1987–88 – Persian Gulf.
  • 1990 – Saudi Arabia: Operation Desert Shield.
  • 1991 – Iraq and Kuwait: Operation Desert Storm.
  • 1992–96 – Bosnia and Herzegovina: Operation Provide Promise.
  • 1992–2003 – Iraq: Iraqi no-fly zones.
  • 1995 – Bosnia: Operation Deliberate Force.
  • 1996 – Kuwait: Operation Desert Strike.
  • 2001 – War in Afghanistan.
  • 2010–11 – War in Iraq: Operation New Dawn.

Comparison with Chart 6


PERIOD

NUMBERS IN MILLIONS

PERCENTAGE

GLOBAL POPULATION

1990-1992                   

1015 

19%

5432   Billion

2000-2002

957

15%

6380

2005-2007

907

14%

6479

2008-2010

878

13%

6754

2011-2013

842

12%

7016

Chart 8 (Repeat of Chart 6)

This comparison shows that reduction of poverty stricken individuals is directly proportional to the downsizing of American forces deployed in battle conditions. This is not to say that the US is the sole country providing aid under the FAO plan, but to reinforce the concept that it is the principal driving force behind reducing poverty and poverty-related problems. Statistics do not lie.

Another point that needs reiteration is population density. If you were to stand up and say that one percent (1%) of the population of Asia had AIDS, it would imply that a number 1.4 times the population of the entire continent of Australia was affected. More people travel at any given time on the rail network in India than the population of Denmark. Bangladesh, with a population density of 2,595.74 per sq mile tops the list of reasonably sized countries, followed by South Korea at 1,273.50, Japan at 873.42 and India at 851.04. The USA is at 79.55, ranked 142 out of 192 countries.

The FAO and UN’s Post-2015 Development Agenda

The UN’s Millenium Development Goals (MDG) agenda is the overall framework within which the High Level Panel on the UN’s 15-year Development Agenda falls. The aim of this panel is to chart a 15-year program with defined targets for the period. The 2000-2015 report has been released, and the achievements listed. It runs as follows:

Remarkable Achievements Since 2000

After the MDGs were adopted, dozens of developing-country planning ministries, hundreds of international agencies and thousands of civil society organizations (CSOs) rallied behind them. Together, they have contributed to remarkable achievements; half a billion fewer people in extreme poverty; about three million children’s lives saved each year. Four out of five children now get vaccinated for a range of diseases. Maternal mortality gets the focused attention it deserves. Deaths from malaria have fallen by one-quarter. Contracting HIV is no longer an automatic death sentence. In 2011, 590 million children in developing countries – a record number – attended primary school. This unprecedented progress was driven by a combination of economic growth, government policies, civil society engagement and the global commitment to the MDGs.

Given this success, it would be a mistake to start a new development agenda from scratch. There is much unfinished business from the MDGs. Some countries achieved a great deal, but others, especially low-income, conflict affected countries, achieved much less. In our discussions, we became aware of a gap between reality on the ground and the statistical targets that are tracked. We realized that the next development agenda must build on the real experiences, stories, ideas and solutions of people at the grassroots, and that we, as a Panel, must do our best to understand the world through their eyes and reflect on the issues that would make a difference to their lives.

As may be expected, the bottom line of both the FAO and the UN’s Post-2015 Development Agenda are the same; just the wording is separate. As the Executive Report puts it:

  1. Leave no one behind.

We must finish the job. After 2015 we should end extreme poverty, in all its forms. We should ensure that no person – regardless of ethnicity, gender, geography, disability, race or other status – is denied universal human rights and basic economic opportunities.

  1. Put sustainable development at the core.

Only by mobilizing social, economic and environmental action together can we eradicate poverty irreversibly and meet the aspirations of eight billion people in 2030.

  1. Transform economies for jobs and inclusive growth.

A quantum leap forward is required in economic opportunities and a profound economic transformation to end extreme poverty and improve livelihoods.

  1. Forge a new global partnership.

We must build a new partnership underpinning mutual respect and mutual benefit involving governments and others: people living in poverty, those with disabilities and traditionally marginalized groups.

As far as the FAO is concerned, the word poverty is symbolic of both hunger and malnutrition. That is why World Food Day 2014 is so important. It should reflect progress on the lines of those put forward by global leaders as summarized above.

Relation Between FAO and the World Health Organization              

The relation between FAO and the World Health Organization: The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is an international expert scientific committee that is administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). It has been meeting since 1956, initially to evaluate the safety of food additives and gradually increasing its ambit.

JECFA has since checked 2,500 + food additives, around 40 contaminants and toxicants that are natural, besides remnants of close to 90 veterinary drugs. A set of guidelines and principles have been created to assess existing toxic agents, update them in consonance with technical advancement in toxicology as well as relevant sciences, and validate them. Importers subject food items coming from outside the state and react according to the test results. The recent ban on import of mangoes from India by the EU is a case in point.

Their area of work thus is focused on assessment of risks, if any and the safety appraisal of all additives to food, whether intentionally added or not. They also check out processing aids and flavoring agents, natural toxins and the risk involved in working with such additives. A comprehensive list of items checked for safety and quality is listed on their website. The Codex Alimentarius is the lexicon listing the food standards and guidelines and the certified codes of practice considered by the WTO as the benchmark for compiling regulations at the national level for food safety.

FAO assists its member countries encouraging them to develop and expand their capacities so that food safety as well as quality become key in guarding the health/well-being of locals while advising them how to go about accessing their domestic and regional markets before going global. Capacity Development then becomes the process wherein stakeholders can improve their utility from farm to table. They then become responsible in providing a guarantee with respect to the same two vital factors, viz, the safety and the quality of food destined for internal consumption or for export. The main issues they lay stress on are:

  • Needs assessment
  • Policy advice
  • Food regulations
  • Food inspection
  • Risk analysis
  • Good hygiene practices and Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP)
  • Effective participation in Codex
  • Voluntary standards & schemes
  • Public education and communication

All agencies related to food also participate in the World Food Day Celebrations, including the World Food Program and the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY: A CASE STUDY

The USA is the global leader in corn production and export. Corn comprises 80 percent of the country’s grain harvest. On the international front, the U.S. corn crop is more than the sum of China’s grain harvests (rice and wheat). Corn now tops global grain production way ahead of wheat while almost twice that of rice. It can thus be called the world’s No 1 foodgrain.

Spring 2012 saw U.S. farmers planting close to 96 million acres in corn, a record breaking figure over 75 years. The warm early days of spring got them off to a dream start, with exuberant analysts predicting a record harvest. Corn is a demanding grain−mild heat and plenty of water. Shortage of one or both has serious results. 2012 turned into a farmer’s nightmare: soaring heat leading to dehydration. From a record crop, it dropped to a normal crop. In June, deflated analysts called it a flop crop. As expected, costs soared to record highs.

This case study clearly shows how climate change can affect food security. What is of great interest is the fact that the entire world hoped that the tide would turn, since a good grain harvest in the U.S. translates into a good carryover in grain stocks. This, in turn, regulates grain prices across the world. 2013 costs were predicted to be higher than average, an accurate forecast of gloomy news. 

Then comes the cascade. High grain costs force exporting countries to maintain a buffer stock through Govt control. Importing countries enter a tailspin and middlemen make a killing. The biggest stockist of grain is China, a fact revealed only in August 2014. A partial solution lies in innovation: better biological strains, induced hardiness to resist dehydration, optimal utilization of water and then the magic words-Population Control. The panacea to all global problems!

Unnecessary Impediments: The 2014 Crimean Crisis

All good intentions are negated by loss of international goodwill. The recent annexation of Crimea by Russia followed by the war in Donbass is a case in point. The ban on Russian imports by a number of countries led by the USA, the EU and Canada and the reciprocal total ban by Russia of imports from the European Union, United States, Norway, Canada and Australia is a retrograde step for the FAO. Its annual achievements are slender and such moves could set FAO back several years.

Fortunately, the countries involved do not fall in the category of countries requiring assistance to reduce rural poverty. Both sub-Sahara Africa and Asia should not be affected significantly, but internal ramifications, particularly financial, may still affect donor countries’ contributions this year and the next. The Food Day 2014 report might show a relatively small change since the imbroglio started in February but international sanctions were emplaced only in August.

United Nations Post-2015 Development Agenda: Where FAO Stands

The core of the 2015-2030 agenda, with MDG and targets in mind, revolves around the following categories:

  • The Poverty Apex: It is possible to end extreme poverty and start the extension of prosperity to most people globally. The requirement would be unrelenting equitable economic growth coupled with access to credit and opportunities to move into entrepreneurship for the poor.
  • Human Needs and Capacities: Push to overcome unmet challenges of the past in areas like education, health, emancipation of womankind, specifically where linked to poverty and its obliteration.
  • The Resource Triad: Strengthen the defined resource triad (water and sanitation, energy and climate, and agriculture and food) to further concretize the props of sustainable development.
  • Enabling Environment: Look only at good governance that respects human rights, aims at peace and sustainability, and enables contemporary and green physical infrastructure.
  • Introducing the Corporate world and businessmen to MDGs.

A concentrated assault on poverty should be made to restore human dignity, because poverty is the main obstacle to progress. The aim should not be crossing the definition of wage poverty as $1.25 per day. Note the location of food and agriculture.

Note that poverty eradication has reached no. 3 spot in global opinion.

Cybernated Farm Systems: An Interesting Concept

Sustainability is no longer enough. That may shock you, but seen objectively, sustainability is only the beginning.  SUS + or Sustainability Plus has supplanted the concept calling for a move to overtake sustainability, thereby adding an extra dimension. That may sound heretic in an era where ‘sustainability’ is the programmed end result. On the other hand, we have depredated the globe to such an extent that we must remedy the damage done to the planet; sustainability can only be the beginning.  To go a step further, self sustenance is a homonym for a state of limbo, neither here nor there.

Cybernated Farm Systems (CFS) is pushing the concept of SUS+ while explaining that we need to move out of limbo and give something back to the planet.  A good example would be the standard car. “It is sustainable to develop a vehicle that does not pollute, but it would be SUS+ if, by design, that vehicle also created potable water as a byproduct of its very operation,” say the staff at CFS, which is looking to go SUS+ in providing food.

In the educated 21st century, why should anyone go hungry? Why can’t the shocking wastage of food at the current rate be eliminated? Why are gallons of fresh water used in catering for archaic agricultural practices? Yet we claim to be an advanced country in agricultural infotech capabilities. We have Smart Phones, Smart this, Smart that and more- where are our Smart Greenhouses?

The gap between ‘advanced production’ of food and its distribution as clean, nourishing food to all people on the planet can be removed. CFS has devised a self-sustaining aquaponic system that will provide the hungry fruit, fish and half a dozen vegetables without using land. That makes them green at the start itself, ecologically conscious and vigorous in performance, and, as claimed, SUS+.  All that is required at the outset are enough fish to sustain a fish farm and enough fish food, plus a freshwater tank and interlink the two. Add solar panels, wind power generators and capacitors to store power and the system becomes self sustaining. It uses less than 10 percent the water a normal farm would use.

Looking ahead, self-reliant partners like governments and organizations like Oxfam will be required to help create a Second Agricultural Revolution. The revolutionary point here is that there is no plan to feed people commercially, or recover land lost to antiquated 17th century agricultural systems which wasted fresh water and ravaged their topsoil. People will need to learn the simplest of methods of producing food, so that they rapidly acquire their needs for immediate survival.

This advanced concept of food production should abolish any barrier between production and food distribution globally. Since their facilities are self sustaining, they can be emplaced in those parts of the world which has no infrastructure, thereby feeding the desperately hungry immediately. Location is no big deal; they can be snugly fitted into apartment complexes or areas under housing development, etc. In effect, they can be located on demand. The more arid the desert, the more the space available.

When we see disturbing images of totally skeletal infants, with equally gaunt mothers, it triggers intense emotions within us. Nothing has changed in decades upon decades. A sense of guilt is not enough. Poverty was, is and will remain the major issue insofar as the development of humanity is concerned which is why this issue has stayed with us for centuries. The Internet is a global borderless communication network for free flow of information, and its utilization is growing exponentially. If that be so, why have we not yet been able to cater for the basic needs of one another? Why is nearly half the world without sufficient resources to survive? Can we rectify this ongoing atrocity? Of course we can. 

Today, poverty is not just unnecessary, it is an unacceptable reality in a fatalistic society that assumes it is just a way of life and that’s that. A lot of money has been donated but to no avail in the broader perspective. If we look at it from a different angle, we find it’s not the money that people need but access to food and resources directly through local means. This should be the thrust area, to give people access to resources by technological advancements and create an abundance of food and basic necessities we need to survive.

People can bypass governments, have global connectivity, the power and tools to come together and share world changing ideas with millions and shape reality. Just one of CFS’ buildings can produce enough food to feed up to 600 people with half a dozen different types of fruits and vegetables each, giving a thrust to local food production to sustain the people and the community in need.

World Food Day 2013
In India, six percent of its people are being fed with grain produced by pumping groundwater. For China, 12 percent face the same problem. Water depletion looms large over harvests in China, India and the United States, the big three that together produce 50 percent of the world’s grain. Will water shortages affect harvests in the big three? Yes, it will. When? That’s the 64 million dollar question.   

Case Study: What Happens When the Wells Go Dry

Man can survive without food for up to 10 days, but not more than 48 hours without drinking water. There can be no substitute for water. Even food production depends on adequate water. The average human consumption of water is three liters a day, but that meal on your plate took 1,500 liters of water.

Foodgrain is the prime supplier of our calories, supplemented by non-vegetarian intake. Vegans have a tough time getting their calories. Today, more than half the global grain harvest is grown on irrigated land. Irrigation thus plays a focal role in the growth of grain. Statistically, global irrigated land increased from 100 million hectares (250 million acres) in 1951 to 285 hectares (700 million acres) in 2000, a threefold rise. But the rise between 2010 and 2000 is less than 10 percent! The lesson behind this assumption by Lester R. Brown, President of the Earth Policy Institute and prolific writer on food related topics is, unfortunately, less than watertight. Drip irrigation is the preserve of the affluent and less than 10 percent of land irrigated in the Indian subcontinent is by the efficient drip method. The remainder is watered by the inefficient gravity feed system. Over 25 percent of water meant for irrigation is lost between the fount and the field and another 15 percent lost in routing the incoming water. If assistance is provided to countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan, Brown’s figures will change dramatically. As it stands, India has just about started drip irrigation. The problem here is that the source of water in India is the aquifer/borewell.  

Irrigation water comes either from rivers or aquifers. Historically, irrigation water came from lakes behind dams across rivers. This water led to a network of gravity-fed canals, until the 1960s when building dams became anathema for a variety of reasons, mainly the consequent loss of poor farmers’ agricultural land. Farmers then turned to sinking wells into underground water resources.

These water resources expanded global food production; the demand for food will keep climbing, as will the water pumped. Some day, extraction will exceed recharge from precipitation, water tables will fall, wells will go dry and the pumped water-based food bubble will burst.

Some 18 countries are overpumping their aquifers, including China, India, the United States, Pakistan, Iran and Mexico. The most dramatic case is Saudi Arabia, water-poor if oil-rich. The 1973 Arab oil fracas saw the Saudis trying to gain self-sufficiency in wheat by developing irrigated agriculture based on underground water. They announced failure in 2008; wheat planting would cease in 2016. All 15 million tonnes of wheat, corn, barley and rice, required by its people would be imported. Syria, Iraq and Yemen will follow soon. Iran and Pakistan are next.

Among the big three, USA, China and India, only 20 percent of the harvest in the US is from irrigated land. Most of the crop is rain-fed. Still, the U.S. Geological Survey estimates that 400,000 acres of farmland dried up statewide between 2000 and 2005. Falling water levels are already hurting China, almost as large as the United States, the global leader. India has difficult days ahead, since 27 million+ irrigation wells have been drilled by farmers to extract underground water. Grain harvest in India’s has been on the upslope, but for the wrong reason, i.e., over-pumping. 175 million Indians eat grain produced with over-pumped water.

In the United States, farmers are over-pumping in states such as Texas, Oklahoma, Nebraska and Kansas. These states have not only raised wheat yields but shifted from wheat to corn, a higher-yield crop. Kansas’ production of corn now exceeds that of wheat.

Irrigation based agriculture draws water from Ogallala aquifer, which is a huge underground reservoir. Unfortunately, this aquifer is fossil-based, and cannot be recharged. Once drained, back you go to dry land farming or giving up farming. Over-pumping, whether in the Middle East or the U.S., leads to aquifer depletion and shrinking grain harvests. For some countries this has become a stark reality.

The world has quietly transitioned into a situation where water, not land, has emerged as the principal constraint on expanding food supplies. There is enough land to produce food if water were available. Harvests are shrinking in some countries because of aquifer depletion, in others because of soil erosion. Among the more vivid examples of soil erosion are Mongolia and Lesotho. 

Water constraints, exacerbated by soil erosion; the loss of cropland to nonfarm uses; a stagnation of yields in large producing areas, and climate change are increasingly making world food production more difficult. Are we likely to see a cessation of growth in world grain growth? No, say scientists.

While reviewing the progress of the FAO since inception, they agreed that the time frame was not exactly ideal seventy years ago. The FAO had been setting small targets since inception in 1945, as listed earlier in Chart 7 on page 9. The ultimate aim was to eradicate hunger by the only method possible, viz., growing enough food to feed every human being on the planet. 1945 was a different era; it is difficult to imagine what life was like then. More than 85 percent of people of that era have died and the remainder is dispersed all across the globe. The number of countries in 1945 which were recognized internationally was 72, which has risen to 192 today.

To most, the FAO was just another organization that met every year to enjoy an all expenses paid holiday, since no outcome was seen. While this may be a cynical diatribe, the fact remains that neither the UN nor the FAO progressed significantly. Besides, the world was in a state of turmoil, with large scale wars disrupting global progress. It was a period of the one step forward and two backward syndrome. But time is a great healer and both the UN and the FAO seemed to stabilize in the late 70’s.

Toward the end of the past millennium, the UN and its various bodies had gained acceptance and enough clout to wield a punitive stick. For instance, the World Trade Organization (WTO) which supervised and liberalized international trade since 1 January 1995, having replaced the 1948 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was successfully drawing the Multi Fiber Agreement regulating world trade in textiles and garments from 1974 through 2004 to a successful close in their new avatar as the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), with new policies allowing less developed countries (LDC) greater opportunities in the global market for apparel through a series of negotiated agreements.

The FAO was given due recognition and respect and created a charter to be followed in letter and spirit, with palpable emphasis starting in the new millennium. The yearly aims were no longer a bagatelle-a concerted effort was to be made to ensure that they were met. This time, there was to be the one step forward and no retrogression. It wasn’t as though the aim was achieved 100 percent, but at least a whole-hearted attempt would have been made. The theme for 2013 was Sustainable Food Systems for Food Security and Nutrition.

Feeding 7.12 billion mouths is a serious problem. Yet, many scientists think that loss of biodiversity is a far more serious problem. They suggest that these two issues should not be considered separately and remonstrate that they are closely connected and, if their synergies can be leveraged, both aims can be met with greater success. That is why farmers should care about conservation and conservationists should care about agriculture. Recently, leaders from these two sectors have put a new concept into motion, called Bridging Agriculture and Conservation (ibid). Their aim is to prove how optimal utilization of ecological systems will foster resilience in agricultural systems while simultaneously improving the conservation of biodiversity. They issued an interesting statement, “We believe that achieving the dual goals of food security and biodiversity conservation will require more science, not less (ibid).” The unspoken implications are increased depth in knowledge and enhanced technology. By putting science into farming at every level, the income for thousands of smaller farmers could well increase multifold. They have already demonstrated a 100 percent rise in productivity, promising much higher financial returns.

World Food Day 2014

842 million people will starve today, or, at best, manage a couple of scraps of food. Global population is close to 7.1 billion, of whom 6.3 billion will get the 1,800 odd calories required for   sustenance. Try and imagine one scenario, no matter how unrealistic: These 6.3 billion skip one meal on Global Food Day. If the ingredients that constitute that one meal can be collected and distributed to the starving, the 842 million will get enough to cook eight full meals, or ten meals if utilized sparingly. The point here is not so much the redistribution of one meal skipped, but the fact that every time you eat three meals a day per month, the global poor are missing out the ONE meal they can subsist on every day for one full month. USA figures in the list of hungry countries!

Hunger in the USA

Surprisingly, one in six Americans does not have enough food to eat. The South Bronx has the highest rate of food insecurity in the country, 37 percent, compared with 16.6 for New York City as a whole. One in eight Iowans often goes hungry, with children the most vulnerable to food insecurity. Congressional cuts to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) last fall of five billion dollars have reduced benefits from $205 to $172 a month and this $1.10 cut per day is hurting. Food pantries and soup kitchens have gone up to 50,000 from a few hundred in 1980.

The 2013 benefits totaled $75 billion, but most households got lower payments. Recipients usually manage to hold their monthly allotment for three weeks, then willy nilly turn to food pantries. Who qualifies for SNAP? Households with gross incomes no more than 130 percent of the poverty rate. For a family of four that means $31,005 a year. Gross incomes in Alaska and Hawaii are higher than in the U.S. (ibid). The country that wastes the maximum cooked food is, you guessed right, the USA. 30% of all food in the USA, worth US$48.3 billion, is dumped each year. It is also estimated that about half the water used to produce this food also goes waste, since agriculture is the largest human use of water. It is ironic that the world’s richest country cannot feed 90 million people, yet wastes the maximum food!

World Food Day: 2014: Family Farming

Family farming is inextricably linked to national and global food security. Both in developing and developed countries, family farming is the predominant form of agriculture in the food production sector. Family farming includes all family-based agricultural activities, and it is linked to several areas of rural development.

The theme for 2014 World Food Day is Family Farming: “Feeding the world, caring for the earth”. This theme has specifically been chosen in order to bring the profile of small family farming into the limelight as also the lot of farmers with a small farm holding. The idea is to focus global attention on the prominent role family farming can play in eliminating hunger as well as poverty, bolstering food security along with nutrition, enhancing livelihoods, regulating and controlling natural resources, safeguarding the environment while attaining sustainable development, specifically in non-mainstream rural areas. This theme is a repeat of 1987(Chart 7).

The UN General Assembly designated 2014 as the “International Year of Family Farming,” sending a positive indication that the global community takes cognizance of the major contribution that family farmers make to universal food security.

Of the 570 million farms across the globe, 500 million+ may be called family farms. Most of these global farms are relatively minute, with 475 million+ farms smaller than 2 hectares in area. Put together, they occupy a vast area, but, as it turns out, they form a small percentage of our world’s farmland.

Farmland distribution thus seems unequal at world level, but is improving in low, lower – middle – income countries and in the odd regional group. Unfortunately, census data on farmland distribution is inadequate, but it is essential to create a representative image of the number of farms, the number of family farms, farm size as well as global farmland distribution.   

Now that the entire background of factors affecting availability of food for the poor have been seen, it will become easier to envisage what can be expected of World Food Day 2014, rather, what we can contribute to making this momentous day a success.

Some points to be kept in mind are:

  • There is a global misconception that people go hungry because the quantity of foodgrain available cannot support them. Actually, there is enough food available right now to feed the entire global population of 7.12 billion for almost 40 days, with huge amounts being added every day. Sadly, laws extant today make it well nigh impossible for the poor to reach this food over the shoulders of the middleman.
  • In India, the foodgrain that rots every year due lack of storage space can feed its entire population for a fortnight with three meals a day. This is unacceptable.
  • You have no control over what Vladimir Putin intends to do on 16 October. For that matter, you may not be able to persuade even your neighbors to cooperate.
  • Will the SFIS keep quiet that week/day? You cannot predict the movement of radicals.
  • Very few countries will actually contribute meaningful sums, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China. This is ironic, since the last two countries named have almost a third of our global population living on their soil, and known to have vast numbers below the poverty line of US$1.25. It is not likely that any of these four will ask for aid either. That said, most countries provide students in Govt schools up to the age of nine one free meal.
  • A random analysis of contributions in this millennium shows lots of words and actions that did not translate into the need of the hour, foodgrain or hard cash.

What Can you Do?

So what can you do? When you look at the problem optimistically, there are many things you can do, both individually and as a group. First of all, go to the website for the US and Canada. Read through it. When you reach the Act page, you’ll see 12 options. Read through them and do what is attainable by you. All steps are listed. The options are:

  1. Host a World Food Day meal.                                  7.  Spread the word through social media.
  2. Organize a food packaging event.                             8.  Activate your campus.
  3. Walk to end hunger                                                   9.  Engage your local schools.
  4. Arrange a food and fund drive.                                10.  Inspire your faith community to take action.
  5. Grow a garden.                                                        11.  Join your local hunger coalition.
  6. Live on $1.25 a day.                                                 12.  Volunteer your time.

There are many more links on the website and you can follow the lead and do your bit. Would you call this doing your bit? Responding to suggestions made by some unknown bloke who set up the webpage? The suggestions may well be helpful but they haven’t come from you-you are doing what someone else is telling you to do. Be original. Or stay conventional-the choice is yours.

The Presbyterian Mission is organizing a Food Week of Action (12-19 Oct.), the International Day for Rural Women (Oct. 15), the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty (Oct. 17) and World Food Day on the 16th. Their focus Sunday to Sunday is on Resiliency:

  • Resilient livelihoods, communities and relationships
  • Resilient farming production and food chains
  • Resiliency promoted through policy

They also have a set of Actions and Activity Ideas. You will be able to download their printable flyer. Print 200 copies and ask for the newspaper delivery boy’s help in distribution. The idea of making a video and uploading it is appealing, so if you have any film-oriented ideas, jump right in. The activities are duplicated on the flyer, for easy reading. The generous prizes are incentive enough! You could then read the para on Faith in Action! It is self-explanatory. If you are an Oxfam type, go to http://www.oxfamamerica.org/take-action/events/world-food-day/

REFERENCES

This entry was posted in: Blog.

The Definitive Nursing Guide (2014)

The Definitive Nursing Guide (2014)

Last Updated Aug 5, 2014

Overview, History, Education, Requirements, Responsibilities, Salaries, Advanced Practice Areas & Glossary

Introduction

The first image that comes to mind when the word Nurse is uttered is that of The Lady with the Lamp, Florence Nightingale. A crisp and clean pastel colored uniform, an equally imposing white apron, a friendly and winning smile, a neatly balanced cap and a practical no-nonsense attitude. This is one vocation that has not seen much of a change insofar as dress and attitude are concerned. Yes, starched cotton has given way to modern technical textiles, the color need not be white, the attitude may still be the same, but the aptitude and demands of both medical knowledge and hands-on capabilities have increased manifold. Nursing is a thankless job, wherein the nurse empathizes with her patient while remaining dispassionate in a holistic sense. Death can never be a friendly companion.

Some war has been raging in some part of the globe every single day since the beginning of the last millennium. It might have been equally so for the preceding millennium, but proper records for that period are not available. Millions of people must have died due to injuries sustained in wars which were not attended to in the manner seen today. Starting circa 1855, a few persons did conduct medical care in a uniform but the majority of the wounded were attended to by nuns and priests and in most military forces of today, nurses are addressed as ‘Sisters’. The role of the Christian churches has been documented, making it the pioneering organization in nursing. Most sanatoriums were run by Christian monasteries. Islam too has a role for nurses, except that male patients could be attended to only by male nurses, while female patients were taken care of by women. Pagans reportedly left the wounded to fend for themselves. Jesus Christ’s edicts gave weight to caring for the infirm, giving nurses the moral fibre to care for victims struck down by extremely hazardous diseases like smallpox. Outcasts like lepers were also attended to, in the prevailing but mistaken belief that Leprosy was contagious.

Definition of a Nurse

The perception of nursing varies from person to person, state to state and even country to country. Wikipedia provides a very broad-based opinion, “Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.” Perhaps the clearest definition is provided by the American Nurses Association, “Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.” 

Brief History: The Rise of Nursing as a Career

Florence Nightingale, an upper class British lady turned nurse and born in Italy perhaps inspired many women to join her, though her nursing career spanned only three years. She brought in a Nursing Uniform for identification; nuns and priests had their habits and cassocks. The Catholic Church started to sponsor hospitals and introduced specific orders to care for the wounded, disabled and aged. The Protestants followed suit and, in 1836, titled their nurses Deaconesses. Since Martin Luther, the founder of the Protestant movement was German, most Deaconesses were initially German. Over time, The Little Sisters of the Poor (aged care), Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Mary, St. Francis Health Services, Inc. and Sisters of Charity managed to raise funds from the Prelate and well wishers and used this money to set up large hospitals and hospices internationally, shaping contemporary hospital and nursing systems of the today.

 

Florence Nightingale’s vociferous complaints about the appalling medical situation in the Crimean War galvanized the hierarchy to set up training centers for field doctors and nurses in 1860, and successful candidates took part in the many Boer Wars as well as WW I. WW II, however, changed the lives of the nursing sorority totally, particularly for those from the US. Apart from inspirational stories of heroism, the remuneration offered was munificent and educational qualifications required basic. This led to a rush from women from the relatively lower rungs of society. All nurses were women and officers, helped out by enlisted women (WACs) as hospital orderlies. In the case of the UK, nurses were given officer ranks, but weren’t commissioned. They were Class II gazetted officers. This situation changed as the war drew to a close, with Nursing Services Officers getting a Royal Commission.

Types of Nurses

The field of Medical Science has diversified greatly, leading to an incredible number of specializations. Three decades ago, you would have heard a common term like Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Specialist, your ‘go to’ man whenever your ear, nose or throat needed attention. Today, that ENT Specialist is called an Otolaryngologist. He still performs the tasks the ENT Specialist did, but to a somewhat limited degree. Often times, he will refer you to an Otologist/Neurotologist, Otoneurologist, Neurologist, Audiologist, Ophthalmologist, Neuro-ophthalmologist and more. If viewed in totality, a nurse trained in Otolaryngology should be able to adapt to any of the other fields mentioned. This is, however, not the case. A nurse assisting a Neuro-ophthalmologist would need to have specialized knowledge and experience in this field, as surgery might well be required. That said, the commonality factor in nursing in terms of pure patient care, which is the starting point of all healthcare training, is far greater than in the Medical Sciences field, making specialization a mite easier for them.

There are various types of nurses, depending entirely on their level of education in the health care field, their certification and licensing. If inclined towards nursing, it is possible for you to start with a specific role in mind and push through till the end. What is most likely is that along your path of education, subtle changes in role present themselves and, given the conditions obtaining, you might elect to modify your aim. Even as you reach the terminal phase, a range of types of nursing roles may become available to you as you finish with the process of your education and related certification.

Nursing roles are categorized somewhat disparately, without becoming mutually exclusive. The governing factor regulating the nursing career opted for by you is invariably the end product of a mix of the education and experience imbibed by you in the early days of your career. Consider education or certification. These two elements, i.e., education level and degree held by you, or your certification, can help in categorizing nursing roles. Other groupings could be related to the patient’s age or gender. If you who wish to look after people in their dotage, you could opt for geriatric care. At the other end of the age scale is the new-born baby and you could go in for pediatric care. If you wish to help only women, a vast panoply opens up.

Your choice could be location-dependent. If you live close to a school and have one or two of your own children studying there, you could opt to become a school nurse. Similar constraints could lead you into becoming a hospice nurse, or, for that matter, a normal nurse based in a hospital. Nothing stops you from focusing on your skillset in a specific medical specialty like surgery, oncology, gastroenterology or another medical specialty. As seen, a combination of your education, certifications, and experience will determine the career path you take within the field of nursing.

There are six types of nurses, starting at the lowest category in order of importance and income:

  • Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)
  • Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse (LPN / LVN)
  • Associate Degree Nurse (ADN)℗
  • Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) ℗
  • Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)
  • Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)*

℗ ADN and BSN, 2 & 4 year courses respectively, grant you a Registered Nurse (RN) status and allow you to appear for your license to practice as an RN. RNs from the BSN course often get preference over those from the ADN course.

* Certain states ban the prefix of Doctor for DNPs, while some other states require them to clarify that they are not physicians.

There are 104 nursing specialties, each with its own set of categories, education levels and characteristics.

Role of Education in the Nursing Industry

A few years ago, field experience combined with an average education would give a nurse preference over another who was highly read, but had little hands-on experience. Things have changed totally. Today, education holds pride of place in the race to a flourishing career, both medical and financial, in the nursing industry. Theoretically, it is possible to envisage a scenario where job seekers with years of hands-on experience may be summarily eliminated from the interview list to make way for a candidate brandishing a degree, i.e., higher education, but with little experience.

While education level may be subjective, the fact remains that an education certified on paper is mostly paramount to prospective success. Spending increasing amounts of time on studies indicates a motivated drive and dedication to first learn and then apply the acquired information, ideas, data, theories and concepts to acquire a higher range of goals. The two skills you cannot do without are those of communication and mathematics.

Communication skills: In the U.S., communication skills would imply an ability to converse freely in English, and, in the Hispanic Southwest, Spanish as well. Communication skills are a managerial ‘must have’ in every role – whether you’re talking to co-workers, doctors, subordinates or patients since you have to explain to the patient what has happened, what the remedy is, what the next step is and why, in a bedside manner different from that of the MDs.

Math skills: Math is a branch of science and a part of daily life. You need to know how to use your head in basic computations, like calculating dosages, totting up surgical supplies or tallying figures.

In the healthcare industry, salaries are based on educational qualifications, the final proof of the importance of education. A generalized scale is given below:

  • Medical jobs, no college degree: Pay $20,000-40,000 annually, on average
  • Allied Health Careers, two years of college: Pay from $40,000-60,000 annually.
  • Nursing Careers, Associate’s or Bachelor Degree: Pay $40,000-55,000 on average annually.
  • Advanced Nursing Careers, Master’s Degree required: Pay $60,000-90,000+ annually.

The trend is more than obvious. The more you study, the greater are your chances of finding employment as a nurse at a better than average salary. What has happened is that patients have been led to believe that once they place their lives in the hands of doctors, they can relax mentally in the mistaken notion that they have secured their longevity. If something untoward happens, they can sue the hospital for malpractice, a process that is on an upward slope. Nobody wants to see a patient denied the best treatment available under the prevailing circumstances. Barring isolated cases caused by paranoid or psychotic people, every individual in the field of healthcare gives off his/her best in the interest of the patient’s well being. Doctors and high profile nurses have rather long working hours. Good intentions notwithstanding, Damocles’ sword of malpractice looms over every practitioner’s head. The focus has therefore shifted to the knowledge level of the entire team, from the doctor handling the case and the nurse as she/he is in constant contact with the patient; the surgeon(s) if surgery is involved and the pre-op nurses who prepare the patient for surgery, the nurse(s) in theOperating Room (OR) assisting the surgeon; the doctor and nurse in the post-op recovery room and Intensive care unit, going back to the first pair of doctor/nurse for prescribed follow-up treatment prior to discharge.

The immediate fallout is that the applicant must be better educated than his/her competitor, now that the Internet is available to both applicant and patient and the latter asks many more pertinent questions before being satisfied. Even administrative assistants, who have little to do with patient care, need college degrees, something unheard of just a decade ago. Statistics show that in advanced nations, information scanned by just surfing the web is absorbed more easily by an uncluttered mind. A six-year  old gen next child has the same level of understanding of communication media as a 45-year old, even with their digital quotient scores equal at 100. A simplistic way of putting it is: The number of doors that will open when you knock is proportional to the number years you have studied.

In a field that has more aspirants than jobs, the fastest way of narrowing the field is by stipulating high educational requirements. Today, employers tend to select candidates who have a decidedly superior level of education. This phenomenon has always been prevalent in better occupations; it has inexorably filtered down to virtually every field requiring interpersonal relationships. Even as a barrier has been erected through educational requirements, the other end of this spectrum has also evolved to prepare for the anticipated barrier.

Schools and colleges have always imparted education; now they teach you how to apply the knowledge gleaned. They also focus on interpersonal skills, observing and then honing your interactive ability. They use this datum to enhance your skills at communication, concentrating on cogent articulation to persuade whoever is on the other end without rancor. Teamwork is improved by melding specific aptitudes to mesh perfectly, without stepping on anybody’s toes.

Management theories have been imported to understand time and job management, getting down to the basics of defining the ideal mean path, so crucial in program evaluation techniques; as well as internal and external analysis of strengths and weaknesses to learn how best to achieve deadlines by managing projects efficiently. These tools come in addition to what these institutions stand for−learning from others by using updated textbooks, understanding your instructor’s aims, admixing your own achievements and achieving formal educational degrees.

As just seen, education plays a great role in achieving your aim; while applicable to everyone, there is a greater bias towards education in the healthcare sector. This is simple to understand. The human body is the most researched subject in the world and some new finding crops up almost every day. If it was cloning the other day and stem cell research today, genome sequencing to avert inheritable diseases is on the anvil with artificial intelligence on the not too distant horizon. Proponents involved will require extremely high levels of academic knowledge, but as support staff in the Healthcare industry, you will also need to stay up to date with developments at your level. This will be possible only if your grounding in the medical sciences and technology is rock solid, not to forget the parallel flow of mathematics.

The bias comes in because human lives are at stake now, not laboratory-born mice and rabbits. Looking after the health and survival of contemporaries places a huge moral and ethical responsibility on you. They depend on you and you cannot let them down. In effect, signing on as a qualified nurse no longer means that you can throw your books away. Education has now become a regular process and you need to know how best to modify and apply it to every single person under your wing; it is highly possible that two different entities requiring two different treatment techniques come under each of your two wings or more. That’s a further addition to your medical knowledge requirements.

Small wonder that medical degrees and recognized certifications are mandatory before you can be permitted to set foot in regular practice. Put together, they will get you that much needed license to don your jacket and stethoscope. You will need to be associate degree qualified, at the very least, for various healthcare roles; to become a Registered Nurse, you will need an associate or bachelor’s degree and if you are thinking of advanced practice in nursing, you will need a lot of experience in post-grad training before you can apply for a Master’s, perhaps a Doctorate.

Nursing Student Loans and Financial Aid

Advanced studies are always expensive and the nursing field is no exception. You need to know or find how many grants, loans, scholarships, work-study and loan forgiveness programs are available to you and where to find them. Grants are “free” money—you do not need to pay grants back. There are well over a thousand Govt grants in the US totaling $400 billion, and managing a student grant will you save you thousands of dollars. Some schools consider you for grants at their own initiative when you complete a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and submit an application to join that school. Do visit the resources listed below for more info.

Nursing scholarships are competitive, but a popular resource as they, like federal grants, are not repaid.

Some loans have to be repaid, or have conditions / limitations and it would be prudent for you to visit their websites. Surf through the u/m sites for better and comprehensive knowledge:

Loan Forgiveness Programs

Federal or state loans are provided under what is called a loan forgiveness program, where the recipient does not repay the loan in cash, but through services rendered in remote or unpopular areas or areas critically short of nurses. The following websites are well worth a visit:

The University of Missouri has a many financial aid programs, including Grants, Scholarships, Loans, etc. Some of the better known Grants are the Federal Pell Grant and the War Veteran Grant. The maximum amount is $5,550. Each Grant or packet of financial aid is subject to a number of conditions, like residence status, prior qualifications, etc.

Becoming a Nurse: Education, Requirements, Responsibilities, Salaries

Surprisingly, the first country to register nurses on a national scale was New Zealand, in 1901. Since the term Nurse is recognized globally as a person who provides practical human health care, their controlling bodies in Government tend to have a common aim, that of care for one and all. While the richer nations ensure quality, poor countries have to depend on the largesse of well-off countries for a modicum of quality. Though each nation has its own educational path to a career in nursing, one factor remains common: the study of accepted core theories of nursing and its practical application, including a lengthy period of supervised hands-on training to acquire the requisite clinical skills. Moreover, since each patient is an individual entity with unique personal needs, the final part of training includes both arts and sciences, like psychology, sociology, technology and, in some cases, particularly in the oriental nations, an insight into spirituality. This training program is invariably followed by external comprehensive tests. In the US, all aspirants-like you- have to appear for and pass the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) in order to get a license for practicing at the entry level.

The NCLEX is devised and conducted by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (NCSBN) in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the four territories of American Samoa; Guam; and the Northern Mariana & the Virgin Islands. There are two types of the exam, one for practical nurses, the NCLEX-PN, and the other for registered nurses, the NCLEX-RN, to be revalidated every two years.

LPN training is generally done at hospitals over three years, with the first month at a college to study the basics in anatomy, diet, physiology and chemistry. You then return to the hospital and after a total of three years, are granted a Diploma. You can look for a job on passing the licensing exam. Many prospective nurses opt for the low-paid jobs when they do not have the money for a college course, build up their bank balance and / or obtain Govt. aid where possible and move upwards. LPNs go in for a two-year college course to get the Associate Degree in Nursing tab, one step up the ladder. The lowest level of trained nurses fall in the Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) category and command the smallest salaries, as seen earlier. At times, they are paid by the hour.

Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)

Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) need not have college degrees. Training is focused on getting a post-secondary non-degree certificate or diploma. An educated CNA may be called upon to wear different hats at different times. (This post used to be called Nursing Orderly earlier). A CNA’s major role is that of providing basic care to inpatients, besides assisting them in routine daily activities which they have difficulty with by themselves, like bathing. The type of job tends to be personal; CNAs should be patient, compassionate, have good communication skills and take pleasure in helping others in need. As may be envisaged, in daily nursing or in long-term adult care facilities, CNAs become a patient’s de facto main caregiver. In today’s cyberworld, CNAs may be asked to operate medical technology services, like billing or general medical information and records software. In some institutions, CNAs are permitted to give medicines to patients, but this will obviously depend on the CNAs aptitude and experience, apart from state regulations. CNAs rarely operate independently. They are delegated tasks by RNs and LPNs, and they provide them the required feedback.

A CNA’s job has downsides too. It could require physically demands, coupled with unpleasant responsibilities; an incontinent patient can be annoying but then, that is the very reason he’s there. He could turn things around and build lasting and gainful relationships with his patients. While CNAs may work in hospitals, most of them prefer nursing and home-care facilities, where they interact with their patients more frequently and can even get acquainted personally. If you wish to join this booming field, a CNA could be a good starting point. Once in, you can work your way around to become an LPN and keep moving up the value chain. To succeed, you’ll need to meet the criteria listed below.

 

You are…

   You should have…
Compassionate Strong decision-making skills
An excellent listener Excellent attention to detail
Supportive Good communication skills
Dependable Problem-solving skills
Physically fit Good ethical standards
Good-natured Ability to maintain interpersonal relationships

Responsibilities:

  • Help patients bathe, dress, get out of bed and other daily activities
  • Turn or reposition bedridden patients
  • Take patients’ temperature, blood pressure and other vital signs
  • Answer patients’ calls
  • Document patients’ health issues and report to nurses
  • Feed patients, measure and record food and liquid intake
  • Clean rooms and bed linen
  • Help with medical procedures and dress wounds

Salaries:

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Occupational Outlook Handbook 2014-15, the median expected annual salary for certified nursing assistant is $24,420. Actual salaries may vary greatly based on specialization within the field, location, years of experience and a host of other factors.

Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) / Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN)

Licensed Practical Nurse

If you have some problem with entering college yet want your foot put into the door for nursing quickly, get yourself a certificate titling you a licensed practical nurse (LPN) [licensed vocational nurse (LVN)in California and Texas]. To get your LPN/LVN certificate, you’ll have to undergo a lengthy training schedule at a technical or trade school or a community college. Bear in mind that you are studying at one level below an Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN). This drawback is countered by the fact that if you’re an LPN/LVN, you can enroll in an LPN-to-RN program, where credits earned during your LPN/LVN training are put toward your Registered Nurse (RN) coursework.

LPN training is generally done at hospitals over three years, with the first month at a college to study the basics of anatomy, emergency care, physiology, medical-surgical nursing, nutrition and chemistry. You will then return to the hospital and after a total of three years, get a Diploma. You can look for a job on passing the licensing exam. Many prospective nurses opt for the low-paid jobs when they do not have the money for a college course, build up their bank balance and / or obtain Govt. aid where possible and move upwards. LPNs often go in for a two-year college course to get the Associate Degree in Nursing tab, one step up the ladder.

Licensed Practical /Vocational Nurses provide basic nursing care. Their duties vary depending on the work setting, but they typically do the following:

  • Monitor patients’ health – such as checking their blood pressure
  • Administer basic nursing care, including changing bandages and inserting catheters
  • Provide for the basic comfort of patients, such as helping them bathe or dress
  • Discuss health care with patients and listen to their concerns
  • Report patients’ status to registered nurses and doctors
  • Keep records on patients’ health
  • Experienced licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses oversee and direct other LVNs and unlicensed medical staff.

LPNs have to undergo a specific accredited program where subjects taught in class, like nursing itself, biology, and pharmaceutical products are coalesced with clinical experience under local supervision. After getting their certificates in practical nursing, the LPNs/LVNs-to-be take the NCLEX-PN exam. A license is obtained on passing to work in that capacity across all states.

LPNs can progress to becoming an RN using a bridging course at any appropriate college, to become an Associate of Applied Science in Registered Nursing (ASN), though the preferred course is a four-year bridging course at college to become a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN). Then they can sit for the NCLEX-RN exam to gain nomination as a Registered Nurse, going through the procedure for licensing.

Median salary for LPNs was around $41,500 per year, whereas median salary for RNs was around $65,500 per year in 2012 and has increased since then. These figures should not be taken for granted as there is plenty of small print to read and quite a few hurdles to cross before you can reach your posted starting salary, particularly if you apply for a job through an agency.

Associate’s Degree in Nursing (ADN)

The requirement for Registered Nurses (RN) is expected to grow at 19% between today and 2022. The requirement for CNAs is slated to rise at 22%. The requirement for ADNs, sandwiched in between will be close to 20%. The ADN post is the most popular entry level post in nursing, closely followed by the RNs. The rationale is simple. It provides you a rock solid career base in the field of healthcare. ADNs have historically mixed well with RNs, with work content not too different as entry-level nursing posts. 36% of RNs have come up as ADNs, so the empathy factor is palpable.

An ADN can be earned over a course of two years and the curriculum will include not only nursing, but also liberal arts. After you earn your ADN, you’ll need to pass a national licensing examination, NCLEX-RN, in order to begin working as a registered nurse.

The principal benefit in obtaining your ADN is that you can complete it in just two years, making this program a good option for those interested in health care, but under external compulsion to get to working at the earliest, generally a finance driven obligation. The ADN program prepares you with a lucid understanding of the how, why and wheretofores of the nursing arena and the duties expected of you. As always, the course syllabus will include a host of topics, most important of which is the preparation to obtain your nursing license.

The salary is generous and theoretically equal to that of an RN who has come up through four years of college. Real life situations are different. If salary is your only criterion, you can drop anchor here. If you wish to progress further, as you must, you will need to take up the additional two years in college to earn the right to append a BSN degree to your name and look ahead. General education prerequisites are covered so you will not need to repeat them in a subsequent bachelor’s degree program. This will entail concurrent working and studying, so you need to anticipate the stress vs time factor in meeting work deadlines and organize your short-term future accordingly. Always remember that thousands of people have done it before you so you can and will hack it. You also have the option of the increasingly popular online courses if you do not wish to go for the on-campus program.

The popularity of an online nursing program stems from the flexibility it offers, allowing students to decide optimal schedules. Online nursing programs are best suited to

  • Single parents: Coordinating on-campus schedules with the vicissitudes of single parents can be a real nightmare. Online courses, done when your child has left for school or is asleep, offer flexible alternatives.
  • Students from remote areas: Excessive distance between college/hospital and home or frequent relocation can render an on-campus program impossible. The answer: online programs. Moreover, most online programs refrain from charging out-of-state tuition fees.
  • Professionals wishing to change careers: If you wish to switch over to nursing as a career, the best way of achieving your aim is via online programs that let you continue working so that tuition costs are covered while you attend school whenever you get free time.
  • Freedom in Timeframe. You can work at your own speed. Some online programs offer you the facility of faster programs, allowing you to achieve your aim quickly.

ADN programs are available at quite a few community colleges, and included as a two-year course in some institutions that run four-year courses. Such a program will combine field training with classroom studies. The basic or foundation courses you will have to undergo will be no different from those required of LPN/LVNs, except for their depth of detail.

A typical set of duties are:

  • Observe patients and report on their wellbeing
  • Keep a thorough record of patients’ medical histories and symptoms
  • Perform diagnostic tests on patient samples and analyze the results
  • Operate medical equipment
  • Administer medicines and treatments to patients
  • Come up with treatment plans for patients’ care
  • Teach patients how to manage their illnesses or injuries at home

Registered Nurse (RN)

The principal aim for most candidates joining the nursing industry is to become a licensed Registered Nurse. You can become a Registered Nurse by obtaining a Bachelor of Science degree in nursing (BSN), an associate’s degree in nursing (ADN), or a diploma from an accredited nursing program. Thereafter you need to pass the NCLEX –RN exam to get your License. This license is valid only for the state you appeared in, but is easily transferable if you move. You’ve already seen that the BSN will take you four years to finish while the ADN and diploma will take you two to three years.

In all nursing education programs without exception, you will take courses in anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, nutrition, psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, as well as in liberal arts. Moreover, all programs include clinical experience under supervision.

In the two additional years for a BSN, you will undergo further education in physical as well as social sciences, communication, leadership, and critical thinking. This training gives you more clinical experience in nonhospital settings. A bachelor’s degree or higher is often necessary for administrative positions, research, consulting, and teaching. The American Nursing Association prefers your taking the four-year BSN program route as the entry level for nursing practice, which also makes getting a job easier than an RN from an ADN. Some hospitals show a preference for BSNs; some states like California impose specific restrictions on certain posts, like mandating a BSN for workers in public health. In most cases, supervisory positions are reserved for BSNs, who obviously are paid more. Home healthcare agencies tend to select BSNs.

BSNs are at an advantage if the hospital they work in intends to get a certification from the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). Two types of certifications are possible, The Pathway to Excellence Program® and the Magnet Recognition Program®. Both certifications recognize health care organizations and long term care institutions for positive practice environments where nurses excel. Both programs have listed parameters that will be checked by ANCC representatives, and deal mainly with the quality of staff care, both medical and medico-administrative. RNs who have come to that hospital through a BSN Program tend to get better reviews, increasing their chances of accreditation in any one or both programs. Obviously, a hospital with twin accreditation will be rated higher than those with just the one. The Magnet Recognition Program® has found takers overseas, in countries like Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Australia, etc., and is therefore rated higher than The Pathway to Excellence Program®. One of the main questions asked of nurses in a confidential survey is about their satisfaction level. Nurses rate salary, recognition, work environment and job satisfaction as the prime ingredients controlling their satisfaction level, which is one reason such hospitals prefer BSNs.

Multiple qualifications can make a career in the healthcare sector very lucrative. For instance, a person with a business degree can take up nursing and, once qualified and licensed, move into the healthcare administration field. The Medical Course will generally take two years as the supplementary information gained in acquiring the previous degree counts towards total time required to obtain a BSN. The avenues for employment open to a healthcare administrator are multifold, like health insurance companies, healthcare associations, hospitals, nursing homes, physician practices and clinics. Salaries in this vast field will vary for each industry, although the median pay for a medical and health services manager in 2010 was a lavish $82,470.  As a matter of fact, a healthcare/nursing degree is currently rated the highest paying College degree.

The US Bureau of healthcare statistics has rated certain parameters as vital for RNs, but a more comprehensive and detailed chapter on their attributes lists the following:

  • Empathy. By definition, the epicenter of nursing is caring and empathy.
  • Detail Oriented. Nursing is a zero error syndrome job as you are dealing with a person’s life.
  • Communication. The ability to quietly interact with all kind of patients can work wonders.
  • Intuition. The ability to notice minutiae and subtle nuances can help chart a patient’s treatment.
  • Emotional Stability. Nurses cannot afford to lose focus in gruesome cases or when relatives / acquaintances are the patients involved.
  • Critical Thinking. The ability to react immediately and correctly is a crucial factor.
  • Coordination of Services. The nurse is the focal point around whom everybody in that patient’s medical team revolves.
  • Patience. The ability to stay calm under all circumstances reassures the patient involved.
  • Dedication. The ability to provide the best possible care under any circumstances, irrespective of any personal discomfort.
  • Physical Endurance. The need to often work 12 hours nonstop causes extreme fatigue, but it should not exact its toll in the form of medical errors. Nurses must learn how to stay fit. Fatigue was cited as the main reason for the fairly high rate of turnover in the nursing field.

A study on the age of RNs showed that the average age of RNs, both male and female, was 41.5 years with about 16 years of experience as an RN; most RNs upgraded their status by the age of 48; only 13 percent of the 829 nurses interviewed were below the age of 30, which age group also had the highest turnover. Approximately 30 percent had come through a diploma program, 13 percent were ADNs, 53 percent were BSNs, and 4 percent had earned graduate degrees in nursing.

Job Profile

Registered nurses provide and coordinate patient care, educate patients and the public about various health conditions, and provide advice and emotional support to patients and their family members. They work as part of a team with physicians and other healthcare specialists. Specialized RNs work within their specialty, e.g., as an oncology nurse, you would be in a cancer ward; as a surgical nurse, you would be in a surgical ward, etc. Some RNs, usually BSNs supervise LPNs and CNAs. Essentially, the basic tasks RNs perform are:

  • Record patients’ medical histories and symptoms and give them their medicines and treatment.
  • Observe patients and record observations; discuss these with the doctor assigned.
  • Operate and monitor medical equipment and help perform diagnostic tests.
  • Teach patients and their families what to do once discharged from hospital.

According to the Bureau of Labor Resources, RNs held close to 2.7 million jobs in 2012 as the largest healthcare occupation. The top five industries that employed the most registered nurses in 2012 were as shown in Chart 1 below:

employment 2012Chart 1

median 2012Chart 2

Salary:

Again, according to the Bureau of Labor Resources, the median annual wage for registered nurses was $65,470 in May 2012. The median wage is the wage at which half of the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than  $45,040 and the top 10 percent earned more than $94,720. It must be noted that different employers offer different perks, like flexible work schedules, childcare, educational benefits, and bonuses. A chart (Chart 2) depicting median annual wages for RNs is placed supra.

Nurse Administrator

The role of a Nurse Administrator is to manage and oversee all work done by nurses, with an eye towards the improvement of quality and efficacy of patient care. The Administrator is also involved in budgeting, expenditure control, selecting and inducting new staff and the general coordination of training and creating work schedules. Since most of their job is cost control related vis-à-vis quality of patient care, the administrators should have a flair for thinking out of the box and being innovative.

A bachelor’s degree is adequate for a Nurse Administrator’s job. The trend, however, is to acquire a master’s degree in healthcare management, which has a surfeit of the higher degree programs. The content of these programs is focused on advanced nursing practices, networked with ethics and system policy, i.e., the syllabus will be heavily biased to the role of a nurse administrator with its concomitant challenges. The contents of the syllabus will include:

  • Organizational management
  • Leadership
  • Human and Fiscal Resource Management

On passing a written exam, the American Nurses Credentialing Center will certify you as a nurse administrator on the capacity of Nurse Executive or Advanced Nurse Executive, which has to be renewed every lustrum. You will require an active RN license, a BSN or higher in nursing and a specific administrative background for at least two years in the past five years. As an MSN without any administrative background, you will require 30 hours of continuous training in this field in the past three years. The only difference in the Advanced Certification is the experience factor. It is necessary to have held some admin post at an executive level for nurses OR been on the faculty in a full-time post teaching nursing administration at the executive level for two years (or equivalent) in the preceding five years. According to The US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Occupational Outlook Handbook 2014-15, the median expected annual salary for healthcare administrators is $88,580, subject to many variables and imponderables. It is one of the better jobs for people with administrative skills.

comparison
Chart 3

 

Nurse Informatics Specialist

The job of a Specialist in Nurse Informatics is fairly new, in that hospitals are becoming fully computerized and computer specialists are required in every department, fully networked to provide the patient enhanced care. The one difference from geeks is that this specialist must be an RN, that too through a BSN degree. Some institutions manage with RNs, irrespective of how they achieved that distinction. If properly integrated, there will be fewer medical errors, improved patient security as well as confidentiality, on a need to know basis. Since technology is involved, an additional test of your knowledge of modern computer technology will be taken. On earning your degree, the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) will certify your credentials. Tyros (< 5 years experience) will need to pass the Certified Associate in Healthcare Information Management Systems (CAHIMS) exam.

According to a survey by the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS), “57 percent or respondents said their main responsibility was providing systems preparation, training and continued support to users, while 53 percent spent most of their time on systems development, where they customize or update systems or create a new homegrown system.” Additionally, certification is available from HIMSS based on years of service in healthcare infosystems.

As technology evolves, salary levels will rise alongside. Currently, a Social Science Research Assistant is paid a median salary of $37,140, rising to $54,638 for a Clinical Research Coordinator and $79,680 for a Computer Systems Analyst. Salary.com has pegged the median expected annual salary for Clinical Informatics Coordinators at $76,503, no mean sum. This is one area where you can get a good job as this is a relatively new career opening in nursing, where most nurses in the field are not sufficiently trained in IT, leaving the door for candidates looking to plug the gap between clinical care and technology open.

salariesChart 4

 

 

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)

As is the case with all Master’s, a commitment to acquire a Master’s in Nursing (MSN) takes dedication and hard work, impacting your success in the field of nursing. The Master’s degree in nursing is often the ultimate goal of nurses. Apart from the connotation it carries, it opens the door to a large number of vocations, fresh vistas and opportunities, one of which may be ideally suited to you. Higher pay and greater responsibilities are related adjuncts. You could even shatter the glass ceiling.

A master’s degree provides you with the ability and higher levels of hands-on training you will require to provide top grade nursing care in specialized roles, e.g., nurse practitioner. In real life, your MSN lets you deliver healthcare services similar to those provided by physicians. Physicians tend to be overbooked or beyond the means of some patients, thereby advancing your position.

Advanced Practice Areas

The advanced practice areas for you are quite diverse in content and could be:

  • Nurse Practitioner (NP)
  • Certified Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)
  • Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)
  • Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM)
  • Nurse Educator (NE)

On completion and accredition, you would fall into the Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) category. The CRNA, though an APRN, would categorize you as a Doctor of Nurse Anesthesia Practice (DNAP). All these degrees, especially NPs, can have sub-specialties, each in the APRN category. Moreover, these degrees are terminal degrees.

The more ambitious nurses could consider even more rewarding jobs in terms of degrees and salary. These are the twin-qualification programs of:

  • MSN/MPH: Where you combine your MSN with a master’s in public health.
  • MSN/MBA: Where you combine your MSN with a master’s in business administration.
  • MSN/MHA: Where you combine your MSN with a master’s in health administration.

Part of the MSN syllabus is training in the business aspect of nursing. The topics covered will include down to earth programs like leadership, man and resource management, health policies and the financial aspect of advanced training. An MSN program generally takes two years. Most MSN programs include work experience as mandatory and generally stipulate the following add-ons:

  • A BSN
  • An RN license
  • Minimum GPA and GRE scores, which depend on the program in mind
  • Clinical experience, once again dependent on the program in mind

A non-medical graduate could also qualify to become an MSN. These tend to be three-year programs, with the first year dedicated to entry-level nursing and the next two dedicated to MSN- related courses. At the end of it all, the NCLEX-RN has to be cleared. You can attend college or university for your MSN, but the trend is to study online, providing that you meet laid down criteria similar to, or the same as discussed earlier.

Nurse Practitioner

Nurse Practitioners (NP) originally worked in the children’s health department. Today, that role has changed and become more broad-based, as NPs are allowed to home in on a specialty such as adult care, family care or women’s healthcare. An NP is a high-demand high-pay job with a current shortage in staff. They have been clamoring for equal footing with MDs, stating that APRNs offer services beyond traditional office hours, serving patients and families that might not otherwise be able to secure primary care services.

NPs focus on overall preventative healthcare with customized treatment for each patient. There are many types of NPs:

  • Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner
  • Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner
  • Family Nurse Practitioner
  • Acute Care Nurse Practitioner
  • Adult Nurse Practitioner
  • Neonatal Nurse Practitioner
  • Perinatal Nurse Practitioner
  • Rural Nurse Practitioner

In a landmark decision, nurse practitioners in New York will soon be able to operate more independently of doctors. The Nurse Practitioners Modernization Act 2014 removes the requirement of a written practice agreement between an experienced nurse practitioner and a doctor as a condition of practice. The law will take effect Jan. 1, 2015.  The Medical Society of the State of New York (MSSNY) strongly opposed the decision.  MSSNY referred to studies that showed that increasing the use of NPs does not lower costs as the patients of NPs tended to have higher rates of medical service utilization. However, NPs and CNSs will be paid less for an identical service rendered by an MD.

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs)

The life span of most Americans has increased considerably, partly due to increased awareness about health, assessing their own health and involvement in their own medical care. The need for healthcare professionals, including CRNAs, is projected to grow at a better-than-average rate. Today, CRNA opportunities have gone beyond a traditional OR setting, as there is, and will remain a need for nurse anesthetists in hospital delivery rooms, and as primary providers of anesthesia in field military clinics.

Salary: CRNAs are the highest paid category of healthcare specialists. The median pay is $1,70,000. Starting salary is in the $120,000 range, while highly experienced CRNA professionals take home over $220,000 a year. Per hour rates are over $100!

Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)

Clinical Nurse Specialists are APRNs with a master’s or doctoral degree in a specialized area of nursing practice.  The area of specialization may be in:

  • population (e.g., pediatrics, geriatrics, women’s health)
  • a setting (e.g., critical care, emergency room)
  • a disease or medical subspecialty (e.g., diabetes, oncology)
  • type of care (e.g., psychiatric, rehabilitation)
  • type of health problem (e.g., pain, wounds, stress)

Apart from traditional nursing responsibilities to help patients prevent or resolve illness, CNS’ scope of practice includes diagnosis and treatment of diseases, injuries and disabilities within their field of expertise. They provide direct patient care, act as expert consultants for nursing staff and are proactive in improving healthcare systems.

Certified Nurse-Midwives

Certified Nurse-Midwives (CNMs) are APRNs who counsel and provide gynec care during pre-conception, pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. CNMs, along with certified midwives (CMs) also provide family-oriented primary healthcare to women throughout their reproductive lives. Skilled midwifery reduces high-tech intervention for most women in labor, but CNMs also are trained in using up to date scientific procedures to assist in normal deliveries.  CNM-attended births account for 10% of all spontaneous vaginal births in the US, and 7% of all US births in total.  Of these deliveries, 97% occur in hospitals, 1.8% in freestanding birth centers and 1% at home.

Many people harbor the wrong impression that midwives only assist with births. While attending births is the integral part of their job, it is only a fraction of what midwives actually do. On average, CNMs/CMs spend 10% of their time taking direct care of women giving birth and newborn children.

Comparativechart 5

 

Comparative Salaries of MSNs

Nurse Educator (NE)

Nurse educators are registered nurses with advanced education who also teach. Most work as nurses for some time before dedicating their careers (part or full-time) to educating future nurses. They serve as faculty members in nursing schools and teaching hospitals, imparting their knowledge and skills to the next generation of nurses for efficient practice. Most of them have extensive clinical experience, and continue patient care even after becoming educators. Nurse educators need to stay current with evolving nursing methodology and technologies, to stay abreast of advancing clinical practices.

Nurse Educators are in high demand, because the US is facing a serious shortage of nurses. One key reason given is the paucity of nurse educators to teach and train future nurses. Campaigns have been launched to encourage the younger generation to opt for a career in nurse education. One example is the Nurses for a Healthier Tomorrow Coalition, launched in 2004.

The campaign was launched by a coalition of 43 leading nursing and healthcare organizations to address the nursing shortage, and is touting their cause with a slogan, “Nursing education … pass it on.” The aim is to increase the number of nurse educators, the shortage of whom is forcing nursing schools

to turn away prospective students.

According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), a member of Nurses for a Healthier Tomorrow, nursing schools in the United States turned away more than 11,000 qualified applicants in 2003. Almost 65 percent of the reporting nursing schools cited faculty shortages as the reason for not accepting all qualified applicants into entry-level baccalaureate programs.

The comparative salaries of MSNs vs that of a Registered Nurse is listed in Chart 5.

Doctor of Nursing Practice

The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is a professional degree that prepares graduates to provide the most advanced level of nursing care for recipients. This includes direct care of individual patients, management of care for individuals and populations, administration of health care and nursing systems, and the development and implementation of health policy. If you have completed the Doctor of Nursing Practice program, you should be able to:

  • Assume organizational and system leadership in the analysis, delivery, and management of nursing care, within system limits.
  • Implement the highest level of advanced nursing care to produce high quality, cost-effective outcomes for widely divergent groups of patients.
  • Use theories, concepts, and analytic methodologies learned to design, implement, and evaluate practice by applying your mind to improve extant nursing systems.
  • Contribute to the knowledge of best-practices and dissemination of outcomes through professional papers with or without a mentor, discourses and presentations.
  • Develop practice standards based on the integration of ethics, sociology and evidenced-based nursing care.

Within the nursing spectrum, you have four types of nursing doctorate degrees to choose from. Each degree stipulates specific path to follow.

  • Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP): This degree stresses clinical practice-oriented leadership training.
  • Doctor of Nursing (ND): This degree looks at further development of exhibited advanced specialist skills.
  • Doctor of Nursing Science (DNSc): This degree relates to investigative and research skills.
  • Doctor of Nursing Philosophy (PhD): This degree is inclined towards scholarly research and inquiry.

Note 1: A DNP is a degree for practice in a clinical set up, whereas a PhD is geared towards research.

Note 2: The DNP degree is set to become the degree for entry to advanced practice nursing by 2015.

There are two other options, which are joint programs.

  • MSN/PhD: A master’s degree holder gets a doctorate in an accelerated program.
  • BSN-PhD: A program generally limited to BSN-holders who hold out plans to become researchers or nursing instructors.

A Doctorate is the ultimate in the nursing field. You cannot sit back on your laurels, because the Doctorate brings with it expectations of the highest levels of efficiency in every aspect related to nursing. You will become the father figure and need to set an example worthy of emulating. All responsibility will fall on your shoulders, though you would delegate both responsibility and authority to your senior staff members. Ultimately, your reputation is at stake.

A doctorate in nursing takes, on the average, four to six years to attain. This gives you adequate time to prepare. You can accelerate matters a bit, depending on your confidence level. Your pay packet also increases a fair bit. The doctor of nursing practice degree is set to become the degree for entry to advanced practice nursing by 2015, to the dismay of nurse practitioners. The salary difference is of the order of $8,000. But then, these DNPs degrees (67%) were obtained by NPs with 6 to 15 years’ experience. The median salary of DNPs with 0-2 years of experience in that post was $102,500. These would naturally increase as incremental pay linked to years of practice.

THE NURSING PARADOX: America’s Health Worker Mismatch

The recession saw high unemployment in almost all sectors, but jobs in the healthcare industry increased by more than 1.2 million, with high salaries of over $60,000. The need for these very workers will keep increasing. The Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare is a complete overhaul of the US healthcare system and is projected to add 32 million people to insurance coverage over the years to come. The aging of the US, as death rates are dropping with each passing year, will fuel the need for healthcare as geriatric numbers and concomitant diseases must also increase.

US healthcare workers should be rejoicing, but that is hardly the case. The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Employment Projections 2012-2022 released in December 2013 listed Registered Nursing (RN) among the top occupations in terms of job growth through 2022. The RN strength in 2012 was 2.71 million and forecast to grow to 3.24 million in 2022, increase numbers by 526,800 or 19%. The Bureau also listed replacements in the industry at 525,000 raising the overall job openings for nurses due to retirements to 1.05 million by 2022.

Despite so many vacancies, medical professional schools are rejecting applications from almost eighty thousand qualified US citizens and plugging the gap by recruiting foreign workers in tens of thousands. Today, about 33,000 healthcare workers are foreign-born and trained, including 25 percent of all physicians. The primary reason is the deplorable state of healthcare schools, which, for some unknown reason, is disregarding the demand/supply curve. The cost of higher education has increased over the past twenty-five years and the cost of educating graduates has shot up rapidly. Over the same time frame, public medical school tuitions have gone up by a mindboggling 312 percent, compounding the problem. The shortage of nursing staff is projected to increase to 260,000 by 2025.

Only 60 percent of the nurses work in hospitals. The remaining 40 percent work in schools, correctional facilities, private companies, home health, nursing homes, government agencies, social assistance agencies and research labs. One out of every four RNs works part time. At the same time, the rising number of patients suffering from complex diseases has called for more complex and specialized skill sets. In-demand specialties include traveling nurses, nurse informatics specialists, acute nurse practitioners, geriatric nurses, hospice nurses, and home care nurses. The greatest need is for Nurse Educators.

The Govt Institute of Medicine, in its report on The Future of Nursing, called for increasing the number of baccalaureate-prepared nurses in the workforce to 80 percent and doubling the population of nurses with doctoral degrees. The current nursing workforce falls far short of these recommendations with only 55 percent of registered nurses prepared at the baccalaureate or graduate degree level.

The number of professionals that can be trained in healthcare in the US is limited by an archaic law requiring US students to be educated only in teaching hospitals, even when their stated destination is a clinic or community hospital. This automatically places a limit on numbers. A waiting list is created, increasing the training period and virtually barring students from indigent communities.

Credential creep sets in. Audiology, physical therapy and optometry now require doctorate  licensees for therapists who had earlier required a master’s degree. The cascading effect is more schooling, higher attrition rates, higher debt, higher wage demands and fewer workers from underserved and low-income areas. This licensing system favors foreign-trained health workers, who do not have to meet the self-imposed qualifications.

In numbers, 30,000 additional nurses should be graduated annually to meet the nation’s healthcare needs, an expansion of 30 percent over the current number of annual nurse graduates. This solution, though numerically viable, cannot be put into practice straightaway. The greatest worry is that a significant segment of the nursing workforce is nearing retirement age. 55 percent of the RN workforce is aged 50 or older. They will retire in next to no time.

One solution suggests increasing the retirement age. This will create a hierarchy logjam, in that senior vacancies will remain blocked to younger nurses, who will then shift to private nursing homes and similar posts. According to a May 2001 report on the US impending health care crisis released by University of Illinois College of Nursing, “The ratio of potential caregivers to the people most likely to need care, the elderly population, will decrease by 40% between 2010 and 2030. Demographic changes may limit access to health care unless the number of nurses and other caregivers grows in proportion to the rising elderly population.”

Changing demographics signal a need for more nurses to care for our aging population. The future demand for nurses will increase dramatically as the baby boomers reach their 60s and more. Insufficient staffing will raise the stress level of nurses, impact job satisfaction, and force many nurses to leave the profession or go elsewhere. In a 2005 survey printed in the Nursing Economic$ journal, “Almost all surveyed nurses see the shortage in the future as a catalyst for increasing stress on nurses (98%), lowering patient care quality (93%) and causing nurses to leave the profession (93%).” One parallel conclusion was that failure to retain nurses contributed to avoidable patient deaths.

This problem is not limited to the US alone. Most advanced countries tend to outsource jobs in the healthcare industry, whether at below the RN level or above. There is a need to get local people to learn to look after others, but today’s Gen Next thinks that Medical Studies is far too time consuming and not adequately rewarded. As long as this attitude persists, the problem will not go away.

GLOSSARY OF TYPES OF NURSING

Agency – Agency Nursing is essentially where a nurse registers or signs up with an agency or similar group to tell them what hours they are available to work. The nurses are then contacted and offered work on a shift to shift basis. Agency Nurses are now in high demand, particularly, in the case of nurses with specialized training or experience.

Ambulatory Care – Ambulatory Care Nurses care for patients whose stay in the hospital or other facility will be less than 24 hours. Such nursing covers a broad range of specialties in the out-patient setting.

Anesthesia – Nurse Anesthetists work with surgeons, dentists, podiatrists, anesthesiologists, and other doctors to provide anesthesia to patients before, during, and after surgery or child birth.

Cardiac Care – The Cardiac Care Nurse works with other members of the medical staff in assessing, intervening, and implementing nursing care for cardiac patients. The American Board of Cardiovascular Medicine is a sub-specialty cardiology organization that provides cardiology professionals with primary and secondary education in their specific area of need, and professional certification awards to validate their role within the cardiology service line.

Case Management – Case Management is a collaborative process of assessment, planning, facilitation and advocacy for options and services to meet an individual’s health needs through communication and available resources to promote quality cost-effective outcomes.

Critical Care – Critical Care nurses provide care for patients and families who are experiencing actual or potential life-threatening illness. More specific fields that fit into the critical care category include cardiac care, intensive care, and neurological and cardiac surgical intensive care.

Emergency – Emergency Nurses assess patients, provide interventions and evaluate care in a time limited and sometimes hectic environment. Emergency Nurses work independently and interdependently with various health professionals in an attempt to support patients and their families as they experience illness, injury or crisis.

Forensics – Forensic Nurses provide medical care to victims of crime, collect evidence after crimes occur, and provide medical care to patients within the prison system. Their affiliation needs be international as most major crimes tend to be cross-border incidents. Their controlling agency is the International Association of Forensic Nurses

Gastroenterology – Gastroenterology (GI) Nurses provide care to patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal problems who are undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic treatment and/or procedures. GI Nurses practice in physician offices, inpatient and outpatient endoscopy departments, ambulatory endoscopy centers and inpatient hospital units.

Geriatrics – Geriatric Nurses care for elderly patients in a number of settings which include the patients home, nursing homes, and hospitals. Geriatric Nurses face constant challenges because their patients are often very ill, very complex, and very dependent on the nurses’ skills.

Holistic – Holistic Nurses provide medical care for patients while honoring the individual’s subjective opinions about health, health beliefs, and values. Holistic nursing requires nurses to integrate self-care, self-responsibility, spirituality, and reflection into their daily nursing care.

HIV/AIDS – HIV/AIDS Nurses provide healthcare for patients who are HIV or AIDS positive. These nurses usually have specialized training in HIV/AIDS.

Informatics – Nursing Informatics is a broad field which combines nursing knowledge with the use of computers. Jobs in this field could range from the implementation of a new computer network within a hospital to the sales of computer systems to hospitals by an outside computer company.

Legal Nursing – Legal Nursing combines the use of the legal system with a thorough knowledge of the nursing field. Legal Nurses are usually seasoned veterans of the nursing field who work with attorneys to review medical documents and determine if medical negligence occurred. The regulatory agency in the U.S. is the American Association of Legal Nurse Consultants

Midwifery – Midwives are nurses that are specially trained to deal with childbirth and providing prenatal and postpartum care. The midwives are qualified to deliver babies by themselves unless there are extenuating circumstances which require the midwife to consult with a physician.

Military – Military Nurses work in a variety of settings, ranging from family practice at a local military base to providing emergency care for the wounded during war times.

Neonatal – Neonatal Nurses provide care for newborns by assessing the patient to ensure good health, providing preventative care to prevent illness, and caring for the babies which are sick. The neonatal nurse is responsible for anticipating, preventing, diagnosing and minimizing illness of newborns.

Neuroscience – Neuroscience Nurses care for patients using new therapies and innovative technologies to treat diseases of the nervous system.

Nurse Practitioner – Nurse Practitioners are advanced practice nurses who have obtained their masters degree and are qualified to prescribe medication, and interpret diagnostic and laboratory tests. They fall under the fiefdom of either the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners or the American College of Nurse Practitioners in the U.S.

Occupational Health – the Occupational Health Nursing is responsible for improving, protecting, maintaining and restoring the health of employees. By providing this care for employees, the occupational health nurse is able to influence the health of the organization.

Oncology – Oncology Nurses provide health care for cancer patients at all stages of treatment and remission.

Pediatric – Pediatric Nurses care for children in all aspects of health care. Pediatric nurses practice in a

variety of settings which include hospitals, clinics, schools, and in the home. The controlling agencies in the U.S. are the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses or the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners.

Perioperative (OR) – Perioperative Nurses work in operating rooms in tertiary care hospitals, community and rural hospitals, day care surgery units and specialized clinics. They often provide post-anesthetic care in rural hospitals or specialized units where nurses provide total patient care.

Psychiatric – Psychiatric Nurses provide care for patients and families with psychiatric and mental illnesses. These nurses practice in a variety of settings which include hospitals, and institutions. Since this is an underdeveloped field, affiliation is to an international agency, the International Society of Psychiatric – Mental Health Nurses

Research – Research Nurses perform clinical and basic research to establish a scientific basis for the care of individuals across the life span-from management of patients during illness and recovery to the reduction of risks for disease and disability, the promotion of healthy lifestyles, promoting quality of life in those with chronic illness, and care for individuals at the end of life.

School Nursing – School Nurses work with students and faculty of schools providing medical care and other support in an in-school environment. Since parents can be very demanding in the U.S., they are affiliated to the National Association of School Nurses.

Transplant – Transplant Nurses work in a variety of settings and function in various aspects of transplant procedures. They assist in the transplantation of various body parts which include, but are not limited to: liver, kidney, pancreas, small bowel, heart, and lungs. Their regulatory agency is the International Transplant Nurses Society.

Trauma – Trauma Nurses care for patients in an emergency or critical care setting. These nurses generally care for patients who have suffered severe trauma such as a car accident, gunshot wound, stabbing, assault, or other traumatic injury.

Travel Nursing – Travel Nurses work for an agency that provides nurses to hospitals and other health care facilities across the country. Travel nurses usually get to choose which locations they are willing to travel to and are typically given assignments which last for 13 weeks or more. Travel nurses usually make a very good salary, receive paid housing accommodations, sign-on bonuses, and other excellent benefits.

Urology – Urology Nurses care for patients in such specialties as oncology, male infertility, male sexual dysfunction, kidney stones, incontinence, and pediatrics. Urology nurses may also participate in such urological surgeries as surgery for cancer, general urology, plastic, infertility, brachytherapy, lithotrispy, and pediatric surgery.

Women’s Health – Women’s Health Nurses participate in fields such as OB/GYN, mammography, reproductive health, and general women’s health. These nurses practice in a variety of settings.

References:

This entry was posted in: Blog.

Worldwide Earthquake Data Magnitude 5.0 and Over (2013)

December 2013

5.2 – 92km NW of Davila, Philippines

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 31, 2013 11:41:47 PM
Location (click for map) 19.1673°, 120.0807°
Depth 10.28km | 6.39mi
Region 92km NW of Davila, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 3.75, rms 1.08

5.2 – 83km NNW of Davila, Philippines

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 31, 2013 09:32:01 PM
Location (click for map) 19.1223°, 120.1797°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 83km NNW of Davila, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 3.771, rms 1.48

5 – 70km NNW of Davila, Philippines

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 31, 2013 08:04:32 PM
Location (click for map) 19.0589°, 120.3057°
Depth 20.61km | 12.81mi
Region 70km NNW of Davila, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 98, dmin 3.809, rms 0.93

5.7 – 77km NNW of Burgos, Philippines

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 31, 2013 08:01:06 PM
Location (click for map) 19.1181°, 120.2719°
Depth 10.95km | 6.8mi
Region 77km NNW of Burgos, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 3.757, rms 0.9

5 – 114km NNE of Neiafu, Tonga

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 31, 2013 01:55:02 PM
Location (click for map) -17.6528°, -173.6869°
Depth 15.38km | 9.56mi
Region 114km NNE of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 3.84, rms 0.84

5.1 – 93km ENE of Hihifo, Tonga

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 31, 2013 08:36:30 AM
Location (click for map) -15.6555°, -172.934°
Depth 31.82km | 19.77mi
Region 93km ENE of Hihifo, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 2.065, rms 0.75

5.1 – 4km S of Takahagi, Japan

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 31, 2013 01:02:59 AM
Location (click for map) 36.6768°, 140.7171°
Depth 9.99km | 6.21mi
Region 4km S of Takahagi, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 66, dmin 2.022, rms 0.89

5 – 87km NNW of Davila, Philippines

Monday, December 30, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 30, 2013 08:31:02 PM
Location (click for map) 19.1552°, 120.1599°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 87km NNW of Davila, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 48, dmin 3.744, rms 0.91

5.1 – 77km NNW of Burgos, Philippines

Monday, December 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 30, 2013 08:17:59 PM
Location (click for map) 19.1308°, 120.3026°
Depth 16.49km | 10.25mi
Region 77km NNW of Burgos, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 39, dmin 3.739, rms 0.82

5 – 110km ENE of San Isidro, Philippines

Sunday, December 29, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 29, 2013 05:49:55 PM
Location (click for map) 10.4842°, 126.9708°
Depth 36.93km | 22.95mi
Region 110km ENE of San Isidro, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 83, dmin 3.66, rms 0.99

5.1 – 5km NE of San Potito Sannitico, Italy

Sunday, December 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwr)
Date and Time Sunday, December 29, 2013 05:08:43 PM
Location (click for map) 41.369°, 14.445°
Depth 10.5km | 6.52mi
Region 5km NE of San Potito Sannitico, Italy
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.05

5.7 – 119km E of Bitung, Indonesia

Sunday, December 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, December 29, 2013 03:37:38 PM
Location (click for map) 1.2996°, 126.2455°
Depth 42.94km | 26.68mi
Region 119km E of Bitung, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 25, dmin 1.237, rms 0.86

5.1 – 122km E of Bitung, Indonesia

Sunday, December 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 29, 2013 02:53:24 PM
Location (click for map) 1.338°, 126.2746°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 122km E of Bitung, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 1.228, rms 1.18

5 – 44km SSE of Bilungala, Indonesia

Sunday, December 29, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 29, 2013 02:29:52 PM
Location (click for map) 0.0094°, 123.3694°
Depth 155.67km | 96.73mi
Region 44km SSE of Bilungala, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 1.203, rms 0.99

5.5 – 164km SE of Taron, Papua New Guinea

Sunday, December 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, December 29, 2013 12:49:16 PM
Location (click for map) -5.605°, 153.9863°
Depth 24km | 14.91mi
Region 164km SE of Taron, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 7.03, rms 0.98

5.6 – 185km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwc)
Date and Time Saturday, December 28, 2013 07:31:23 PM
Location (click for map) 20.7553°, 146.6663°
Depth 11.82km | 7.34mi
Region 185km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 16, dmin 4.12, rms 0.58

5.9 – 61km NW of Neiafu, Tonga

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, December 28, 2013 07:06:16 PM
Location (click for map) -18.2012°, -174.3201°
Depth 95.83km | 59.55mi
Region 61km NW of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 16, dmin 4.255, rms 0.6

5.8 – North of Ascension Island

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, December 28, 2013 06:59:04 PM
Location (click for map) -1.3673°, -15.1711°
Depth 10.23km | 6.36mi
Region North of Ascension Island
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 6.571, rms 0.95

5.9 – 77km SSW of Avsallar, Turkey

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, December 28, 2013 03:21:04 PM
Location (click for map) 36.028°, 31.31°
Depth 40.7km | 25.29mi
Region 77km SSW of Avsallar, Turkey
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 1.34, rms 1.08

5 – 268km S of `Ohonua, Tonga

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 28, 2013 03:20:13 PM
Location (click for map) -23.757°, -174.7772°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 268km S of `Ohonua, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 6.151, rms 1.2

5.1 – 181km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 28, 2013 10:23:37 AM
Location (click for map) 20.7906°, 146.616°
Depth 10.02km | 6.23mi
Region 181km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 4.145, rms 0.74

5.6 – Pacific-Antarctic Ridge

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 28, 2013 06:43:37 AM
Location (click for map) -56.4333°, -142.5413°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Pacific-Antarctic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 27.48, rms 1.48

5.4 – 28km W of Frontera, Spain

Friday, December 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 27, 2013 05:46:03 PM
Location (click for map) 27.7975°, -18.2868°
Depth 7.48km | 4.65mi
Region 28km W of Frontera, Spain
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 0.297, rms 0.75

5 – 67km ESE of Hachinohe, Japan

Friday, December 27, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 27, 2013 10:31:20 AM
Location (click for map) 40.3041°, 142.2498°
Depth 62.25km | 38.68mi
Region 67km ESE of Hachinohe, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 93, dmin 1.841, rms 0.96

5.2 – 193km S of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea

Thursday, December 26, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, December 26, 2013 12:38:36 PM
Location (click for map) -6.0737°, 151.9679°
Depth 45.56km | 28.31mi
Region 193km S of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 5.8, rms 0.85

5.3 – 179km ENE of Tokar, Sudan

Monday, December 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 23, 2013 06:44:21 PM
Location (click for map) 19.1788°, 39.2366°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 179km ENE of Tokar, Sudan
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 6.732, rms 0.97

5.2 – North Atlantic Ocean

Monday, December 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, December 23, 2013 04:45:49 PM
Location (click for map) 25.7194°, -66.6056°
Depth 2.08km | 1.29mi
Region North Atlantic Ocean
Parameters nst, gap 48, dmin 5.896, rms 0.85

5.1 – 97km NE of Visokoi Island,

Monday, December 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 23, 2013 12:05:49 PM
Location (click for map) -56.1371°, -25.9806°
Depth 19.01km | 11.81mi
Region 97km NE of Visokoi Island,
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 6.295, rms 0.76

5.1 – 135km E of Hasaki, Japan

Monday, December 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 23, 2013 09:25:12 AM
Location (click for map) 35.5027°, 142.302°
Depth 17.4km | 10.81mi
Region 135km E of Hasaki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 89, dmin 1.635, rms 1.25

5.8 – 185km WSW of Merizo Village, Guam

Monday, December 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, December 23, 2013 09:12:27 AM
Location (click for map) 12.7711°, 143.036°
Depth 92km | 57.17mi
Region 185km WSW of Merizo Village, Guam
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 1.961, rms 0.85

5.3 – 148km ENE of Hasaki, Japan

Monday, December 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwc)
Date and Time Monday, December 23, 2013 09:11:31 AM
Location (click for map) 36.0942°, 142.4131°
Depth 7.48km | 4.65mi
Region 148km ENE of Hasaki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 113, dmin 3.424, rms 0.77

5.6 – 118km E of Hasaki, Japan

Monday, December 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, December 23, 2013 06:57:29 AM
Location (click for map) 35.688°, 142.1406°
Depth 8km | 4.97mi
Region 118km E of Hasaki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 1.538, rms 1.28

5.2 – 184km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands

Sunday, December 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 22, 2013 01:32:45 PM
Location (click for map) 20.8069°, 146.6465°
Depth 10.2km | 6.34mi
Region 184km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 4.166, rms 0.68

5.4 – Southeast Indian Ridge

Sunday, December 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 22, 2013 12:58:37 PM
Location (click for map) -46.3487°, 95.8139°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southeast Indian Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 21.17, rms 1.46

5.6 – Southeast Indian Ridge

Sunday, December 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 22, 2013 10:03:09 AM
Location (click for map) -46.4386°, 96.0153°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southeast Indian Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 48, dmin 21.099, rms 1.12

5.5 – Southeast Indian Ridge

Sunday, December 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 22, 2013 07:29:03 AM
Location (click for map) -46.4494°, 96.133°
Depth 9.87km | 6.13mi
Region Southeast Indian Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 48, dmin 21.036, rms 0.91

5.2 – 127km WSW of Lata, Solomon Islands

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 05:56:33 PM
Location (click for map) -11.0301°, 164.7141°
Depth 19.88km | 12.35mi
Region 127km WSW of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 36, dmin 4.95, rms 0.82

5 – 15km NW of Shushenskoye, Russia

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 05:51:54 PM
Location (click for map) 53.4162°, 91.7577°
Depth 31.38km | 19.5mi
Region 15km NW of Shushenskoye, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 4.16, rms 0.77

5.1 – 138km WSW of Lata, Solomon Islands

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 05:32:38 PM
Location (click for map) -11.0611°, 164.6149°
Depth 37.86km | 23.53mi
Region 138km WSW of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 4.868, rms 0.74

5 – 20km SW of Ashkasham, Afghanistan

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 02:21:40 PM
Location (click for map) 36.5395°, 71.3868°
Depth 87.1km | 54.12mi
Region 20km SW of Ashkasham, Afghanistan
Parameters nst, gap 38, dmin 2.598, rms 1.49

5.3 – West Chile Rise

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 08:23:48 AM
Location (click for map) -35.0119°, -92.1953°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region West Chile Rise
Parameters nst, gap 25, dmin 16.607, rms 1.08

5 – 231km NNW of Tobelo, Indonesia

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 06:57:37 AM
Location (click for map) 3.4846°, 126.875°
Depth 18.81km | 11.69mi
Region 231km NNW of Tobelo, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 68, dmin 2.739, rms 0.86

5.5 – 35km WNW of Ile Hunter, New Caledonia

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 06:38:29 AM
Location (click for map) -22.2795°, 171.7306°
Depth 122km | 75.81mi
Region 35km WNW of Ile Hunter, New Caledonia
Parameters nst, gap 94, dmin 4.904, rms 1.2

5.5 – 12km S of Asahi, Japan

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 21, 2013 01:34:13 AM
Location (click for map) 35.6065°, 140.6497°
Depth 35.36km | 21.97mi
Region 12km S of Asahi, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 0.405, rms 0.75

5.1 – 16km NE of Meulaboh, Indonesia

Friday, December 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 20, 2013 09:10:47 PM
Location (click for map) 4.242°, 96.2285°
Depth 90.23km | 56.07mi
Region 16km NE of Meulaboh, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 1.214, rms 0.95

5.3 – 107km SSE of Tondano, Indonesia

Friday, December 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, December 20, 2013 06:46:38 PM
Location (click for map) 0.4345°, 125.3514°
Depth 52.86km | 32.85mi
Region 107km SSE of Tondano, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 2.042, rms 0.9

5.3 – 3km SSW of Toride, Japan

Friday, December 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 20, 2013 04:10:46 PM
Location (click for map) 35.8725°, 140.0637°
Depth 72.65km | 45.14mi
Region 3km SSW of Toride, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 66, dmin 1.642, rms 0.85

5.2 – 236km SE of Vao, New Caledonia

Friday, December 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 20, 2013 11:58:59 AM
Location (click for map) -24.0161°, 169.28°
Depth 18.68km | 11.61mi
Region 236km SE of Vao, New Caledonia
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 3.251, rms 0.54

5.7 – Banda Sea

Thursday, December 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, December 19, 2013 09:34:12 PM
Location (click for map) -6.9084°, 128.3228°
Depth 10.63km | 6.61mi
Region Banda Sea
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 3.138, rms 0.85

5.4 – 34km WNW of Warah, Pakistan

Thursday, December 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, December 19, 2013 07:28:40 PM
Location (click for map) 27.5175°, 67.4543°
Depth 10.11km | 6.28mi
Region 34km WNW of Warah, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 18, dmin 7.132, rms 0.76

5.1 – 152km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga

Thursday, December 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, December 19, 2013 04:55:53 PM
Location (click for map) -19.2558°, -172.6861°
Depth 7.99km | 4.96mi
Region 152km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 102, dmin 5.387, rms 1.18

5 – Banda Sea

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 18, 2013 03:18:24 PM
Location (click for map) -6.8885°, 128.3254°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Banda Sea
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 3.142, rms 0.85

5.2 – Izu Islands, Japan region

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 18, 2013 12:54:38 PM
Location (click for map) 30.1622°, 138.6377°
Depth 431.46km | 268.1mi
Region Izu Islands, Japan region
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 3.11, rms 0.7

5.2 – 223km SSW of Severo-Kuril’sk, Russia

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 18, 2013 10:01:13 AM
Location (click for map) 48.8115°, 154.9631°
Depth 33.39km | 20.75mi
Region 223km SSW of Severo-Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 4.636, rms 0.74

5.3 – Greenland Sea

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwc)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 18, 2013 08:22:40 AM
Location (click for map) 75.8461°, 7.1864°
Depth 13.87km | 8.62mi
Region Greenland Sea
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 3.126, rms 1.13

5 – 195km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 18, 2013 12:33:02 AM
Location (click for map) 20.8015°, 146.7576°
Depth 9.77km | 6.07mi
Region 195km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 16, dmin 4.183, rms 0.7

6.2 – 198km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Magnitude 6.2 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 17, 2013 11:38:06 PM
Location (click for map) 20.7727°, 146.7903°
Depth 9km | 5.59mi
Region 198km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 14, dmin 4.162, rms 0.81

5 – 222km NNW of Tobelo, Indonesia

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 17, 2013 10:43:13 PM
Location (click for map) 3.412°, 126.9174°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 222km NNW of Tobelo, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 2.66, rms 0.92

5.7 – 7km SSE of Ndoi Island, Fiji

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 17, 2013 05:02:01 PM
Location (click for map) -20.7074°, -178.6609°
Depth 601.97km | 374.05mi
Region 7km SSE of Ndoi Island, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 18, dmin 4.28, rms 0.99

5 – 210km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 17, 2013 04:01:40 PM
Location (click for map) 20.8089°, 146.8934°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 210km E of Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 4.22, rms 0.94

5.2 – 86km W of Kirakira, Solomon Islands

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 17, 2013 02:16:43 PM
Location (click for map) -10.3109°, 161.1434°
Depth 103.23km | 64.14mi
Region 86km W of Kirakira, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 29, dmin 1.462, rms 0.63

5.1 – Greenland Sea

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 17, 2013 01:49:36 PM
Location (click for map) 75.8159°, 7.0208°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Greenland Sea
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 3.175, rms 0.58

5.5 – 12km SSW of Taltal, Chile

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 17, 2013 12:30:00 PM
Location (click for map) -25.509°, -70.521°
Depth 71.5km | 44.43mi
Region 12km SSW of Taltal, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.4

5.2 – 294km ESE of Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Monday, December 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 16, 2013 10:04:06 PM
Location (click for map) -55.5755°, -32.5032°
Depth 13.64km | 8.48mi
Region 294km ESE of Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 2.638, rms 1

5.2 – Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Monday, December 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 16, 2013 12:28:31 PM
Location (click for map) -47.1806°, -13.392°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 10.136, rms 0.45

5.8 – 153km WSW of Te Anau, New Zealand

Monday, December 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, December 16, 2013 12:07:24 PM
Location (click for map) -46.0838°, 165.9893°
Depth 11.37km | 7.06mi
Region 153km WSW of Te Anau, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 1.023, rms 0.65

5 – 228km SW of Biha, Indonesia

Monday, December 16, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 16, 2013 09:03:11 AM
Location (click for map) -6.799°, 102.578°
Depth 34.31km | 21.32mi
Region 228km SW of Biha, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 2.451, rms 0.71

5.1 – 10km ENE of Xinling, China

Monday, December 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 16, 2013 05:04:54 AM
Location (click for map) 31.0656°, 110.4124°
Depth 17.8km | 11.06mi
Region 10km ENE of Xinling, China
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 1.115, rms 0.68

5.5 – West of Macquarie Island

Monday, December 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, December 16, 2013 04:11:46 AM
Location (click for map) -58.6854°, 149.3456°
Depth 6.67km | 4.14mi
Region West of Macquarie Island
Parameters nst, gap 94, dmin 6.763, rms 0.94

5.1 – 35km NE of Norsup, Vanuatu

Monday, December 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 16, 2013 01:38:33 AM
Location (click for map) -15.8076°, 167.5712°
Depth 55.79km | 34.67mi
Region 35km NE of Norsup, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 58, dmin 2.058, rms 1.18

5.2 – 3km ENE of Huicungo, Peru

Sunday, December 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 15, 2013 12:55:16 PM
Location (click for map) -7.2759°, -76.7646°
Depth 61.8km | 38.4mi
Region 3km ENE of Huicungo, Peru
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 1.623, rms 0.77

5 – 146km NE of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Russia

Sunday, December 15, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 15, 2013 03:07:11 AM
Location (click for map) 53.7905°, 160.4652°
Depth 74.27km | 46.15mi
Region 146km NE of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 61, dmin 1.331, rms 0.62

5.1 – West Chile Rise

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 14, 2013 02:19:29 PM
Location (click for map) -41.3696°, -86.9637°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region West Chile Rise
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 11.935, rms 1.49

5.5 – 6km S of Asahi, Japan

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 14, 2013 04:06:15 AM
Location (click for map) 35.6544°, 140.6546°
Depth 42km | 26.1mi
Region 6km S of Asahi, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 0.443, rms 0.84

5 – 31km SW of Playas, Ecuador

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 14, 2013 01:41:16 AM
Location (click for map) -2.8312°, -80.5869°
Depth 55.69km | 34.6mi
Region 31km SW of Playas, Ecuador
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 3.721, rms 0.69

5.6 – 40km S of El Rosario, El Salvador

Friday, December 13, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, December 13, 2013 04:45:11 AM
Location (click for map) 13.1334°, -89.0898°
Depth 67.59km | 42mi
Region 40km S of El Rosario, El Salvador
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 0.567, rms 0.95

5.1 – 84km NE of Poso, Indonesia

Friday, December 13, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 13, 2013 04:28:51 AM
Location (click for map) -0.9503°, 121.3719°
Depth 47.9km | 29.76mi
Region 84km NE of Poso, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 1.402, rms 0.87

5.2 – 23km ENE of Kuril’sk, Russia

Thursday, December 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, December 12, 2013 10:52:18 PM
Location (click for map) 45.2805°, 148.1766°
Depth 22.02km | 13.68mi
Region 23km ENE of Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 77, dmin 4.123, rms 0.56

5.2 – 182km NNW of Sola, Vanuatu

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 11, 2013 07:11:45 AM
Location (click for map) -12.2793°, 167.1691°
Depth 263.92km | 163.99mi
Region 182km NNW of Sola, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 7.634, rms 0.64

5.4 – 181km NNW of Sola, Vanuatu

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 11, 2013 07:11:44 AM
Location (click for map) -12.2891°, 167.136°
Depth 257.35km | 159.91mi
Region 181km NNW of Sola, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 68, dmin 5.546, rms 0.64

5.4 – 217km ENE of Socorro Island, Mexico

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 11, 2013 12:46:49 AM
Location (click for map) 19.4959°, -109.0571°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 217km ENE of Socorro Island, Mexico
Parameters nst, gap 98, dmin 1.899, rms 1.13

5.3 – 210km WSW of Kuripan, Indonesia

Tuesday, December 10, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 10, 2013 04:27:13 AM
Location (click for map) -5.7271°, 101.9974°
Depth 11.62km | 7.22mi
Region 210km WSW of Kuripan, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 1.659, rms 0.77

5.1 – 259km SE of Iwo Jima, Japan

Tuesday, December 10, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 10, 2013 01:27:32 AM
Location (click for map) 23.0703°, 143.0666°
Depth 88.98km | 55.29mi
Region 259km SE of Iwo Jima, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 4.086, rms 0.73

5.3 – 12km SE of Calingasta, Argentina

Tuesday, December 10, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 10, 2013 12:51:27 AM
Location (click for map) -31.3939°, -69.2994°
Depth 113km | 70.21mi
Region 12km SE of Calingasta, Argentina
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 0.931, rms 1.36

5.1 – 112km ESE of Kitaibaraki, Japan

Monday, December 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 9, 2013 08:36:49 PM
Location (click for map) 36.4198°, 141.9222°
Depth 26.41km | 16.41mi
Region 112km ESE of Kitaibaraki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 107, dmin 2.995, rms 0.78

5.2 – 71km S of Gazanjyk, Turkmenistan

Monday, December 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 9, 2013 11:33:52 AM
Location (click for map) 38.6028°, 55.5975°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 71km S of Gazanjyk, Turkmenistan
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 2.094, rms 0.7

5.1 – 288km SE of Bristol Island, South Sandwich Islands

Monday, December 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 9, 2013 09:00:41 AM
Location (click for map) -60.914°, -22.9528°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 288km SE of Bristol Island, South Sandwich Islands
Parameters nst, gap 59, dmin 9.83, rms 0.84

5.2 – 120km NNE of Tobelo, Indonesia

Monday, December 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, December 9, 2013 08:47:23 AM
Location (click for map) 2.7392°, 128.4034°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 120km NNE of Tobelo, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 2.211, rms 1.07

5.1 – 65km NE of Hihifo, Tonga

Monday, December 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, December 9, 2013 12:03:20 AM
Location (click for map) -15.5806°, -173.2667°
Depth 91.57km | 56.9mi
Region 65km NE of Hihifo, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 39, dmin 2.199, rms 0.95

6 – 134km SE of Kuril’sk, Russia

Sunday, December 8, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, December 8, 2013 05:24:54 PM
Location (click for map) 44.4438°, 149.1667°
Depth 28km | 17.4mi
Region 134km SE of Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 4.726, rms 0.99

5.4 – 39km E of Luganville, Vanuatu

Sunday, December 8, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 8, 2013 01:53:45 AM
Location (click for map) -15.5401°, 167.5311°
Depth 116km | 72.08mi
Region 39km E of Luganville, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 57, dmin 2.321, rms 0.58

5.2 – 119km ENE of Chernabura Island, Alaska

Saturday, December 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 7, 2013 04:44:09 PM
Location (click for map) 55.1872°, -157.8329°
Depth 11.1km | 6.9mi
Region 119km ENE of Chernabura Island, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 190, dmin , rms 0.97

5 – 93km WSW of San Antonio, Chile

Saturday, December 7, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, December 7, 2013 09:23:49 AM
Location (click for map) -33.918°, -72.554°
Depth 44.5km | 27.65mi
Region 93km WSW of San Antonio, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.86

5.4 – 108km NNE of Chirikof Island, Alaska

Saturday, December 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (Ml)
Date and Time Saturday, December 7, 2013 07:36:27 AM
Location (click for map) 56.7463°, -155.0689°
Depth 51.9km | 32.25mi
Region 108km NNE of Chirikof Island, Alaska
Parameters nst150, gap 86.4, dmin 0.52012455, rms 0.85

5 – 18km N of Ternate, Indonesia

Friday, December 6, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 6, 2013 11:54:02 PM
Location (click for map) 0.9635°, 127.3925°
Depth 5.97km | 3.71mi
Region 18km N of Ternate, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 75, dmin 0.192, rms 0.63

5 – 26km SE of Chkalovsk, Tajikistan

Friday, December 6, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, December 6, 2013 10:24:02 AM
Location (click for map) 40.0674°, 69.9219°
Depth 23.69km | 14.72mi
Region 26km SE of Chkalovsk, Tajikistan
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 0.689, rms 0.91

5.1 – 78km W of Lata, Solomon Islands

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 4, 2013 11:00:59 PM
Location (click for map) -10.6069°, 165.1199°
Depth 29.46km | 18.31mi
Region 78km W of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 5.225, rms 1.33

5.2 – 54km SE of Bilungala, Indonesia

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 4, 2013 05:43:24 PM
Location (click for map) 0.0238°, 123.5477°
Depth 136.82km | 85.02mi
Region 54km SE of Bilungala, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 20, dmin 1.312, rms 0.86

5.7 – South of the Fiji Islands

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 4, 2013 02:55:40 PM
Location (click for map) -25.4464°, 178.253°
Depth 574km | 356.67mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 18, dmin 5.083, rms 0.74

5 – 190km ESE of Raoul Island, New Zealand

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 4, 2013 02:10:09 PM
Location (click for map) -29.9746°, -176.1121°
Depth 11.05km | 6.87mi
Region 190km ESE of Raoul Island, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 92, dmin 1.741, rms 0.62

5.2 – 150km NE of Taltal, Chile

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, December 4, 2013 05:39:33 AM
Location (click for map) -24.578°, -69.295°
Depth 72.4km | 44.99mi
Region 150km NE of Taltal, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.05

5.6 – 7km E of Tibanbang, Philippines

Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 3, 2013 11:58:49 PM
Location (click for map) 6.6241°, 126.1749°
Depth 30km | 18.64mi
Region 7km E of Tibanbang, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 0.738, rms 0.79

5.4 – 216km ESE of Iwo Jima, Japan

Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 3, 2013 10:01:15 PM
Location (click for map) 23.9572°, 143.2633°
Depth 9km | 5.59mi
Region 216km ESE of Iwo Jima, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 3.273, rms 1.09

5.1 – 224km SE of Sarangani, Philippines

Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 3, 2013 03:36:37 PM
Location (click for map) 3.7331°, 126.6084°
Depth 51.53km | 32.02mi
Region 224km SE of Sarangani, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 3.037, rms 0.92

5.1 – 91km ESE of Kitaibaraki, Japan

Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, December 3, 2013 09:16:43 AM
Location (click for map) 36.492°, 141.7115°
Depth 18.32km | 11.38mi
Region 91km ESE of Kitaibaraki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 12, dmin 1.638, rms 0.88

5.5 – South of Africa

Monday, December 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, December 2, 2013 12:18:48 PM
Location (click for map) -53.3147°, 25.4971°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region South of Africa
Parameters nst, gap 36, dmin 18.267, rms 0.71

5.4 – 59km SSE of Sinabang, Indonesia

Monday, December 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, December 2, 2013 07:34:55 AM
Location (click for map) 2.0338°, 96.6783°
Depth 18.08km | 11.23mi
Region 59km SSE of Sinabang, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 1.153, rms 1.05

5.6 – 217km NW of Ile Hunter, New Caledonia

Monday, December 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, December 2, 2013 02:14:56 AM
Location (click for map) -21.2849°, 170.3154°
Depth 110km | 68.35mi
Region 217km NW of Ile Hunter, New Caledonia
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 3.685, rms 1.28

5.4 – 278km ESE of Lambasa, Fiji

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 1, 2013 10:01:31 AM
Location (click for map) -17.5604°, -178.2867°
Depth 533.67km | 331.61mi
Region 278km ESE of Lambasa, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 3.495, rms 1.07

5 – 147km SW of Aksu, China

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mwr)
Date and Time Sunday, December 1, 2013 08:34:24 AM
Location (click for map) 40.2532°, 78.9442°
Depth 7.68km | 4.77mi
Region 147km SW of Aksu, China
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 1.708, rms 0.65

6 – 69km SE of Sinabang, Indonesia

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, December 1, 2013 06:29:57 AM
Location (click for map) 2.044°, 96.8261°
Depth 20km | 12.43mi
Region 69km SE of Sinabang, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 1.049, rms 0.89

5.1 – 39km SSW of Zihuatanejo, Mexico

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 1, 2013 03:20:55 AM
Location (click for map) 17.295°, -101.668°
Depth 20km | 12.43mi
Region 39km SSW of Zihuatanejo, Mexico
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.99

5.5 – 218km WSW of Gold Beach, Oregon

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, December 1, 2013 03:19:38 AM
Location (click for map) 41.6832°, -126.8781°
Depth 10.09km | 6.27mi
Region 218km WSW of Gold Beach, Oregon
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 2.047, rms 0.94

6.4 – Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Magnitude 6.4 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, December 1, 2013 01:24:13 AM
Location (click for map) -7.0269°, 128.3791°
Depth 9.87km | 6.13mi
Region Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 11, dmin 3.046, rms 0.7

5 – 107km E of Visokoi Island,

Sunday, December 1, 2013


Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, December 1, 2013 01:13:52 AM
Location (click for map) -56.6006°, -25.4549°
Depth 31.87km | 19.8mi
Region 107km E of Visokoi Island,
Parameters nst, gap 53, dmin 6.693, rms 0.75

November 2013

5.3 – 231km NNE of Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Saturday, November 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 30, 2013 07:20:15 PM
Location (click for map) -1.0586°, 26.8485°
Depth 5.19km | 3.22mi
Region 231km NNE of Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 3.915, rms 0.67

5 – South of the Fiji Islands

Friday, November 29, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 29, 2013 12:05:18 PM
Location (click for map) -26.6809°, -176.0717°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 58, dmin 3.037, rms 1.18

5.2 – South of the Fiji Islands

Friday, November 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 29, 2013 11:53:01 AM
Location (click for map) -26.7068°, -176.1952°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 70, dmin 2.957, rms 0.8

5 – 73km SE of Motuo, China

Friday, November 29, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 29, 2013 01:54:49 AM
Location (click for map) 28.8721°, 95.8701°
Depth 35.15km | 21.84mi
Region 73km SE of Motuo, China
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 4.225, rms 0.63

5.3 – 106km ENE of Anatahan, Northern Mariana Islands

Friday, November 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, November 29, 2013 01:44:20 AM
Location (click for map) 16.8263°, 146.5329°
Depth 46km | 28.58mi
Region 106km ENE of Anatahan, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 0.732, rms 1.15

5.1 – 194km NNW of Sola, Vanuatu

Thursday, November 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, November 28, 2013 04:39:10 PM
Location (click for map) -12.261°, 166.8703°
Depth 221.37km | 137.55mi
Region 194km NNW of Sola, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 7.355, rms 0.63

5 – 10km S of Funabashi, Japan

Thursday, November 28, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, November 28, 2013 04:15:06 PM
Location (click for map) 35.5978°, 139.9774°
Depth 72.22km | 44.88mi
Region 10km S of Funabashi, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 84, dmin 1.714, rms 0.69

5.1 – 145km SSW of Padangsidempuan, Indonesia

Thursday, November 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, November 28, 2013 04:02:54 PM
Location (click for map) 0.2604°, 98.562°
Depth 51.39km | 31.93mi
Region 145km SSW of Padangsidempuan, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 29, dmin 1.43, rms 1.02

5.1 – Indian Ocean Triple Junction

Thursday, November 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, November 28, 2013 03:44:04 PM
Location (click for map) -25.3169°, 69.9043°
Depth 15.64km | 9.72mi
Region Indian Ocean Triple Junction
Parameters nst, gap 66, dmin 13.658, rms 0.7

5.8 – 10km ENE of Borazjan, Iran

Thursday, November 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, November 28, 2013 01:51:34 PM
Location (click for map) 29.32°, 51.31°
Depth 8km | 4.97mi
Region 10km ENE of Borazjan, Iran
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.01

5 – 59km SE of Muroran, Japan

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 27, 2013 05:45:50 PM
Location (click for map) 42.0166°, 141.5895°
Depth 94.79km | 58.9mi
Region 59km SE of Muroran, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 57, dmin 1.168, rms 0.83

5 – Mid-Indian Ridge

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 27, 2013 05:35:20 PM
Location (click for map) -25.366°, 70.0497°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Mid-Indian Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 63, dmin 22.04, rms 0.8

5.2 – Indian Ocean Triple Junction

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 27, 2013 02:26:48 PM
Location (click for map) -25.3411°, 69.7898°
Depth 16km | 9.94mi
Region Indian Ocean Triple Junction
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 21.805, rms 1.1

5.5 – 75km ESE of Kimbe, Papua New Guinea

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 26, 2013 02:30:28 PM
Location (click for map) -5.8261°, 150.7634°
Depth 61.17km | 38.01mi
Region 75km ESE of Kimbe, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 5.039, rms 1.1

5 – 76km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 26, 2013 08:11:25 AM
Location (click for map) 51.519°, -174.425°
Depth 42.2km | 26.22mi
Region 76km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.69

5.5 – 43km NNE of Quilmana, Peru

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 08:06:55 PM
Location (click for map) -12.5993°, -76.2025°
Depth 76.57km | 47.58mi
Region 43km NNE of Quilmana, Peru
Parameters nst, gap 64, dmin 0.872, rms 0.73

5 – 14km NE of Machala, Ecuador

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 07:43:01 PM
Location (click for map) -3.1694°, -79.885°
Depth 85.43km | 53.08mi
Region 14km NE of Machala, Ecuador
Parameters nst, gap 87, dmin 3.675, rms 0.8

5 – 56km E of Ishinomaki, Japan

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 03:43:02 PM
Location (click for map) 38.4819°, 141.94°
Depth 52.86km | 32.85mi
Region 56km E of Ishinomaki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 92, dmin 3.542, rms 1.05

6 – South Atlantic Ocean

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mwc)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 07:21:18 AM
Location (click for map) -53.8708°, -53.9107°
Depth 14.83km | 9.21mi
Region South Atlantic Ocean
Parameters nst, gap 58, dmin 3.346, rms 0.76

5.4 – Falkland Islands region

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 06:41:50 AM
Location (click for map) -54.23°, -55.2804°
Depth 15.73km | 9.77mi
Region Falkland Islands region
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 3.063, rms 0.76

7 – Falkland Islands region

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 7 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 06:27:33 AM
Location (click for map) -53.9451°, -55.0033°
Depth 11.78km | 7.32mi
Region Falkland Islands region
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 2.935, rms 1.08

5.6 – South Atlantic Ocean

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 06:27:08 AM
Location (click for map) -54.0272°, -54.9796°
Depth 10.01km | 6.22mi
Region South Atlantic Ocean
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 3.007, rms 0.75

6 – 247km E of Kuril’sk, Russia

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 05:56:50 AM
Location (click for map) 45.5613°, 151.0047°
Depth 34km | 21.13mi
Region 247km E of Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 5.885, rms 0.66

5.4 – Falkland Islands region

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwc)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 05:10:07 AM
Location (click for map) -54.3401°, -55.334°
Depth 11.63km | 7.23mi
Region Falkland Islands region
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 3.137, rms 1.25

5.1 – 51km N of Wakkanai, Japan

Monday, November 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, November 25, 2013 03:23:54 AM
Location (click for map) 45.8689°, 141.7258°
Depth 19.54km | 12.14mi
Region 51km N of Wakkanai, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 1.304, rms 1.07

5.1 – Indian Ocean Triple Junction

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 10:04:12 PM
Location (click for map) -25.4721°, 69.9995°
Depth 10.1km | 6.28mi
Region Indian Ocean Triple Junction
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 22.018, rms 0.7

5.1 – 14km WNW of Yenicaga, Turkey

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 08:49:38 PM
Location (click for map) 40.8205°, 31.8691°
Depth 5.99km | 3.72mi
Region 14km WNW of Yenicaga, Turkey
Parameters nst, gap 25, dmin 0.588, rms 1.14

5.4 – 38km SW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 06:05:41 PM
Location (click for map) 34.1765°, 45.6171°
Depth 14km | 8.7mi
Region 38km SW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 6.001, rms 1.21

5 – 41km SSW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 06:03:13 PM
Location (click for map) 34.1438°, 45.6274°
Depth 10.78km | 6.7mi
Region 41km SSW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran
Parameters nst, gap 48, dmin 6.034, rms 1.1

5 – 90km SW of Ust’-Kamchatsk Staryy, Russia

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 04:06:22 PM
Location (click for map) 55.5818°, 161.6071°
Depth 70.98km | 44.1mi
Region 90km SW of Ust’-Kamchatsk Staryy, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 69, dmin 3.094, rms 0.77

5 – 105km WNW of Kirakira, Solomon Islands

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 02:14:54 PM
Location (click for map) -10.1744°, 160.9951°
Depth 52.69km | 32.74mi
Region 105km WNW of Kirakira, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 100, dmin 1.265, rms 0.82

5.1 – 131km SSW of Ndoi Island, Fiji

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 11:09:59 AM
Location (click for map) -21.6802°, -179.3221°
Depth 596.2km | 370.46mi
Region 131km SSW of Ndoi Island, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 18, dmin 4.63, rms 0.85

5 – 47km ESE of Lazarev, Russia

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 10:20:28 AM
Location (click for map) 52.0925°, 142.1687°
Depth 12.08km | 7.51mi
Region 47km ESE of Lazarev, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 79, dmin 5.153, rms 0.75

5.3 – South of the Fiji Islands

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 24, 2013 08:47:49 AM
Location (click for map) -24.4162°, 179.2569°
Depth 531.13km | 330.03mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 51, dmin 5.426, rms 0.89

5.4 – 208km SE of Qiemo, China

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 23, 2013 11:30:42 PM
Location (click for map) 36.5757°, 86.8448°
Depth 7.18km | 4.46mi
Region 208km SE of Qiemo, China
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 7.259, rms 0.73

5.2 – 31km SW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 23, 2013 11:26:20 PM
Location (click for map) 34.2291°, 45.6639°
Depth 10.06km | 6.25mi
Region 31km SW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 5.953, rms 0.8

6.5 – Fiji region

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Magnitude 6.5 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, November 23, 2013 07:48:32 AM
Location (click for map) -17.1171°, -176.5449°
Depth 371km | 230.53mi
Region Fiji region
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 5.194, rms 0.83

5.3 – 39km NNE of Changling, China

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwr)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 10:04:25 PM
Location (click for map) 44.5993°, 124.1681°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 39km NNE of Changling, China
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 3.872, rms 0.86

5.3 – 234km W of Kamiiso, Japan

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 09:05:13 PM
Location (click for map) 41.6623°, 137.8339°
Depth 19.05km | 11.84mi
Region 234km W of Kamiiso, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 36, dmin 3.992, rms 0.64

5.8 – 28km SW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 06:30:58 PM
Location (click for map) 34.3083°, 45.6105°
Depth 14km | 8.7mi
Region 28km SW of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 0.75, rms 0.9

5.5 – 277km W of Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 05:20:58 PM
Location (click for map) 5.4216°, 92.8184°
Depth 15.61km | 9.7mi
Region 277km W of Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 4.115, rms 0.84

5.2 – 120km SE of Taron, Papua New Guinea

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 03:27:42 PM
Location (click for map) -5.1089°, 153.9102°
Depth 124.24km | 77.2mi
Region 120km SE of Taron, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 36, dmin 7.205, rms 1.04

5.3 – 159km SE of Visokoi Island,

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 03:06:03 PM
Location (click for map) -57.6843°, -25.2727°
Depth 22.94km | 14.25mi
Region 159km SE of Visokoi Island,
Parameters nst, gap 53, dmin 16.816, rms 0.66

5.6 – 34km W of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 06:51:25 AM
Location (click for map) 34.4574°, 45.4824°
Depth 6km | 3.73mi
Region 34km W of Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 0.784, rms 1.37

5.2 – 70km SSW of Bilungala, Indonesia

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 05:37:18 AM
Location (click for map) -0.1938°, 122.9498°
Depth 92.72km | 57.61mi
Region 70km SSW of Bilungala, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 25, dmin 0.86, rms 1.06

5.3 – Kuril Islands

Friday, November 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, November 22, 2013 03:17:05 AM
Location (click for map) 46.4512°, 153.0688°
Depth 11km | 6.84mi
Region Kuril Islands
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 7.107, rms 0.62

5.5 – 273km ENE of Port Blair, India

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 20, 2013 10:09:18 AM
Location (click for map) 12.3975°, 95.1481°
Depth 10.26km | 6.38mi
Region 273km ENE of Port Blair, India
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 7, rms 0.86

5.1 – Pacific-Antarctic Ridge

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 20, 2013 03:57:04 AM
Location (click for map) -56.8648°, -150.7008°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Pacific-Antarctic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 53, dmin 25.519, rms 0.6

5.7 – Pacific-Antarctic Ridge

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 19, 2013 11:18:00 PM
Location (click for map) -63.2943°, -164.9357°
Depth 10.13km | 6.29mi
Region Pacific-Antarctic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 78, dmin 17.035, rms 0.89

5.1 – 154km SSE of Sinabang, Indonesia

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 19, 2013 08:22:43 PM
Location (click for map) 1.2945°, 97.1165°
Depth 16.42km | 10.2mi
Region 154km SSE of Sinabang, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 0.459, rms 0.84

6 – 58km WSW of Agrihan, Northern Mariana Islands

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 19, 2013 05:00:44 PM
Location (click for map) 18.4753°, 145.2041°
Depth 511km | 317.52mi
Region 58km WSW of Agrihan, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 10, dmin 1.848, rms 1.05

5.9 – 79km SSE of Yap, Micronesia

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 19, 2013 03:16:48 PM
Location (click for map) 8.9147°, 138.5332°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 79km SSE of Yap, Micronesia
Parameters nst, gap 19, dmin 4.176, rms 0.85

6 – 111km NNE of Tobelo, Indonesia

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 19, 2013 01:32:51 PM
Location (click for map) 2.6403°, 128.4339°
Depth 38km | 23.61mi
Region 111km NNE of Tobelo, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 19, dmin 2.14, rms 1.01

5 – 108km NNW of Hihifo, Tonga

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 19, 2013 01:11:41 PM
Location (click for map) -15.0086°, -174.0278°
Depth 78.67km | 48.88mi
Region 108km NNW of Hihifo, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 115, dmin 2.438, rms 0.66

5 – 94km SE of Yap, Micronesia

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 19, 2013 09:25:29 AM
Location (click for map) 8.8152°, 138.6315°
Depth 10.26km | 6.38mi
Region 94km SE of Yap, Micronesia
Parameters nst, gap 38, dmin 7.741, rms 1.09

5.1 – 141km NNW of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Monday, November 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 18, 2013 10:23:28 PM
Location (click for map) -30.3601°, -179.7054°
Depth 334.53km | 207.87mi
Region 141km NNW of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 62, dmin 1.902, rms 1.33

5.4 – 22km ENE of Kupang, Indonesia

Monday, November 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 18, 2013 09:31:09 PM
Location (click for map) -10.0604°, 123.7611°
Depth 29.11km | 18.09mi
Region 22km ENE of Kupang, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 0.174, rms 1.48

5.6 – 24km SE of Toba, Japan

Monday, November 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, November 18, 2013 07:10:45 PM
Location (click for map) 34.3343°, 137.0475°
Depth 328km | 203.81mi
Region 24km SE of Toba, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 19, dmin 1.013, rms 0.75

5 – Scotia Sea

Monday, November 18, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 18, 2013 03:53:01 PM
Location (click for map) -60.2643°, -44.9959°
Depth 14.56km | 9.05mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 63, dmin 7.559, rms 0.63

5.1 – Scotia Sea

Monday, November 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 18, 2013 07:07:36 AM
Location (click for map) -60.5718°, -42.6884°
Depth 14.02km | 8.71mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 66, dmin 7.135, rms 0.62

5.2 – Scotia Sea

Monday, November 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 18, 2013 05:41:43 AM
Location (click for map) -60.4852°, -43.4202°
Depth 15.61km | 9.7mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 7.255, rms 0.73

5 – Scotia Sea

Monday, November 18, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 18, 2013 04:28:44 AM
Location (click for map) -60.5191°, -43.0781°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 7.191, rms 1.07

5.5 – Ascension Island region

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 05:37:14 PM
Location (click for map) -10.329°, -11.8343°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Ascension Island region
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 3.087, rms 0.69

5 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 02:59:12 PM
Location (click for map) -60.4098°, -42.8607°
Depth 15.16km | 9.42mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 7.04, rms 1.2

5 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 02:24:09 PM
Location (click for map) -60.3355°, -44.9984°
Depth 18.91km | 11.75mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 7.613, rms 0.76

5 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 01:42:44 PM
Location (click for map) -60.3611°, -45.0456°
Depth 15.08km | 9.37mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 7.648, rms 0.6

5.2 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 12:45:24 PM
Location (click for map) -60.4037°, -45.2308°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 7.741, rms 0.95

5.7 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 12:11:36 PM
Location (click for map) -60.526°, -44.3839°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 7.568, rms 0.97

5.2 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 11:13:01 AM
Location (click for map) -60.2964°, -46.7021°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 70, dmin 8.174, rms 1.28

5.2 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 10:44:06 AM
Location (click for map) -60.4231°, -44.8133°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 48, dmin 7.621, rms 1.06

5.2 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:33:32 AM
Location (click for map) -60.4754°, -45.2019°
Depth 18.89km | 11.74mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 51, dmin 7.786, rms 0.7

5.1 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:21:28 AM
Location (click for map) -60.2105°, -46.7839°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 8.146, rms 1.3

5.2 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:19:56 AM
Location (click for map) -60.4291°, -44.9238°
Depth 14.6km | 9.07mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 145, dmin 7.66, rms 0.28

5.1 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:17:34 AM
Location (click for map) -60.2388°, -47.1898°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 116, dmin 8.316, rms 1.36

5.3 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:13:01 AM
Location (click for map) -60.6391°, -45.9526°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 97, dmin 11.217, rms 0.9

5.1 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:12:17 AM
Location (click for map) -60.5715°, -45.4035°
Depth 13.07km | 8.12mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 118, dmin 7.924, rms 0.48

5.8 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:11:01 AM
Location (click for map) -60.4778°, -45.2114°
Depth 15.57km | 9.67mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 58, dmin 7.79, rms 0.93

7.7 – Scotia Sea

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Magnitude 7.7 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, November 17, 2013 09:04:55 AM
Location (click for map) -60.2738°, -46.4011°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 8.05, rms 1.33

5.5 – Scotia Sea

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 03:00:12 PM
Location (click for map) -60.3474°, -46.3687°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 8.089, rms 0.91

5.5 – 2km E of Chiba-shi, Japan

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 11:44:41 AM
Location (click for map) 35.6039°, 140.1529°
Depth 59.4km | 36.91mi
Region 2km E of Chiba-shi, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 1.831, rms 0.89

5.3 – 237km SE of Iwo Jima, Japan

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 10:31:26 AM
Location (click for map) 23.5155°, 143.2122°
Depth 38km | 23.61mi
Region 237km SE of Iwo Jima, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 60, dmin 3.683, rms 0.71

5.7 – Off the west coast of northern Sumatra

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 10:26:43 AM
Location (click for map) 4.2077°, 90.0652°
Depth 10.01km | 6.22mi
Region Off the west coast of northern Sumatra
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 6.933, rms 0.78

5.5 – Scotia Sea

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 09:35:46 AM
Location (click for map) -60.2942°, -46.4266°
Depth 10.28km | 6.39mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 29, dmin 8.073, rms 0.96

5.4 – Scotia Sea

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 08:35:05 AM
Location (click for map) -60.3525°, -46.3486°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 8.086, rms 1.02

5 – Scotia Sea

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 08:18:11 AM
Location (click for map) -60.314°, -46.592°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 52, dmin 8.146, rms 1.01

5 – 18km ENE of Kamaishi, Japan

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 05:54:36 AM
Location (click for map) 39.3067°, 142.0954°
Depth 51.18km | 31.8mi
Region 18km ENE of Kamaishi, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 116, dmin 2.823, rms 1.26

5.2 – Scotia Sea

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 04:45:33 AM
Location (click for map) -60.3443°, -47.2097°
Depth 10.01km | 6.22mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 54, dmin 8.393, rms 1.16

5.4 – Scotia Sea

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 03:37:17 AM
Location (click for map) -60.2836°, -46.7083°
Depth 10.05km | 6.24mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 8.168, rms 0.7

6.9 – Scotia Sea

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Magnitude 6.9 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, November 16, 2013 03:34:31 AM
Location (click for map) -60.2627°, -47.0621°
Depth 9.97km | 6.2mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 8.284, rms 0.84

5 – 69km SW of Yonakuni, Japan

Friday, November 15, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 15, 2013 07:39:18 PM
Location (click for map) 24.0755°, 122.4651°
Depth 26.25km | 16.31mi
Region 69km SW of Yonakuni, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 0.632, rms 0.83

5.2 – 63km NNE of Naze, Japan

Friday, November 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, November 15, 2013 06:57:55 PM
Location (click for map) 28.9198°, 129.6623°
Depth 56.2km | 34.92mi
Region 63km NNE of Naze, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 29, dmin 2.413, rms 0.82

5 – 97km W of Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Friday, November 15, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 15, 2013 03:43:08 PM
Location (click for map) 5.394°, 94.4584°
Depth 47.72km | 29.65mi
Region 97km W of Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 54, dmin 2.483, rms 1.02

5.3 – 26km NNE of Amatignak Island, Alaska

Friday, November 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, November 15, 2013 03:35:16 AM
Location (click for map) 51.4634°, -178.9014°
Depth 25.29km | 15.71mi
Region 26km NNE of Amatignak Island, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 0.332, rms 0.83

5.5 – 81km ENE of Mutsu, Japan

Friday, November 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, November 15, 2013 02:00:33 AM
Location (click for map) 41.4306°, 142.177°
Depth 46km | 28.58mi
Region 81km ENE of Mutsu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 38, dmin 0.937, rms 0.81

6.1 – Scotia Sea

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

Magnitude 6.1 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 13, 2013 11:45:47 PM
Location (click for map) -60.2814°, -47.1233°
Depth 11.07km | 6.88mi
Region Scotia Sea
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 8.319, rms 1.19

5.8 – 32km NNE of Amatignak Island, Alaska

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 13, 2013 03:57:39 AM
Location (click for map) 51.5477°, -178.9984°
Depth 20km | 12.43mi
Region 32km NNE of Amatignak Island, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 0.281, rms 0.93

5 – Off the west coast of northern Sumatra

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 13, 2013 01:51:15 AM
Location (click for map) 2.475°, 90.0985°
Depth 13.67km | 8.49mi
Region Off the west coast of northern Sumatra
Parameters nst, gap 79, dmin 7.36, rms 0.85

5.1 – 77km SW of Chirovanga, Solomon Islands

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 12, 2013 08:00:20 PM
Location (click for map) -7.1957°, 156.1274°
Depth 67.87km | 42.17mi
Region 77km SW of Chirovanga, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 67, dmin 4.388, rms 0.95

5.1 – Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 12, 2013 03:59:44 PM
Location (click for map) 31.7461°, -40.5326°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 56, dmin 21.087, rms 0.59

5.4 – Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwc)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 12, 2013 10:41:04 AM
Location (click for map) 31.7623°, -40.4615°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 54, dmin 20.542, rms 0.46

5.1 – Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 12, 2013 09:59:17 AM
Location (click for map) 31.7461°, -40.521°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 56, dmin 21.258, rms 0.72

6.4 – 172km S of Ust’-Kamchatsk Staryy, Russia

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Magnitude 6.4 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 12, 2013 07:03:51 AM
Location (click for map) 54.6859°, 162.3024°
Depth 43km | 26.72mi
Region 172km S of Ust’-Kamchatsk Staryy, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 20, dmin 2.73, rms 0.87

5 – 81km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Monday, November 11, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 11, 2013 08:25:51 PM
Location (click for map) -6.7029°, 154.8542°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 81km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 66, dmin 5.728, rms 0.69

5 – 147km NW of Kota Ternate, Indonesia

Monday, November 11, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 11, 2013 02:00:07 PM
Location (click for map) 1.8458°, 126.5666°
Depth 23.98km | 14.9mi
Region 147km NW of Kota Ternate, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 52, dmin 1.333, rms 0.79

5 – 49km NNE of Yonakuni, Japan

Monday, November 11, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 11, 2013 04:55:09 AM
Location (click for map) 24.8844°, 123.1619°
Depth 124.08km | 77.1mi
Region 49km NNE of Yonakuni, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 71, dmin 0.437, rms 0.96

5.6 – Pacific-Antarctic Ridge

Sunday, November 10, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 10, 2013 09:13:49 PM
Location (click for map) -54.9278°, -130.5733°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Pacific-Antarctic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 31.328, rms 0.75

5.2 – 9km SE of Boshkengash, Tajikistan

Sunday, November 10, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 10, 2013 05:15:10 AM
Location (click for map) 38.4097°, 68.8901°
Depth 22.96km | 14.27mi
Region 9km SE of Boshkengash, Tajikistan
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 2.227, rms 0.94

5.6 – 3km WSW of Moriya, Japan

Saturday, November 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, November 9, 2013 10:37:50 PM
Location (click for map) 35.9187°, 139.9684°
Depth 64.31km | 39.96mi
Region 3km WSW of Moriya, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 0.671, rms 1.04

5.5 – 152km NE of Raoul Island, New Zealand

Saturday, November 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 9, 2013 02:53:26 PM
Location (click for map) -28.3173°, -176.7731°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 152km NE of Raoul Island, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 10.101, rms 0.98

5 – 249km WNW of Saumlaki, Indonesia

Saturday, November 9, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 9, 2013 10:58:20 AM
Location (click for map) -7.0007°, 129.2612°
Depth 152.84km | 94.97mi
Region 249km WNW of Saumlaki, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 6.091, rms 0.81

5.5 – 202km SE of Lata, Solomon Islands

Saturday, November 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Saturday, November 9, 2013 03:45:13 AM
Location (click for map) -12.0269°, 167.1235°
Depth 10.91km | 6.78mi
Region 202km SE of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 7.505, rms 0.74

5.2 – 42km S of Ngulu, Micronesia

Saturday, November 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 9, 2013 12:20:45 AM
Location (click for map) 8.0732°, 137.5572°
Depth 27.36km | 17mi
Region 42km S of Ngulu, Micronesia
Parameters nst, gap 20, dmin 9.032, rms 0.77

5 – 210km WSW of Port Hardy, Canada

Friday, November 8, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mwr)
Date and Time Friday, November 8, 2013 11:44:56 AM
Location (click for map) 50.039°, -130.1887°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 210km WSW of Port Hardy, Canada
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.97

5.5 – Carlsberg Ridge

Friday, November 8, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, November 8, 2013 09:51:01 AM
Location (click for map) -1.1873°, 67.6827°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Carlsberg Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 5.567, rms 0.94

5.4 – 68km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, November 7, 2013 08:13:53 PM
Location (click for map) -6.4618°, 154.8867°
Depth 61.8km | 38.4mi
Region 68km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 51, dmin 5.819, rms 0.73

5 – 72km WNW of Lebu, Chile

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mwr)
Date and Time Thursday, November 7, 2013 05:01:06 PM
Location (click for map) -37.256°, -74.327°
Depth 21.6km | 13.42mi
Region 72km WNW of Lebu, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.93

5.7 – 52km W of Ile Hunter, New Caledonia

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, November 7, 2013 04:46:34 PM
Location (click for map) -22.324°, 171.5445°
Depth 98km | 60.89mi
Region 52km W of Ile Hunter, New Caledonia
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 4.733, rms 0.8

5.2 – 222km WNW of Abepura, Indonesia

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, November 7, 2013 10:47:35 AM
Location (click for map) -1.7668°, 138.7769°
Depth 33.57km | 20.86mi
Region 222km WNW of Abepura, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 2.064, rms 1

5.4 – 24km S of Bokakhat, India

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 6, 2013 04:16:16 AM
Location (click for map) 26.4118°, 93.6451°
Depth 34.32km | 21.33mi
Region 24km S of Bokakhat, India
Parameters nst, gap 25, dmin 1.816, rms 0.96

5.4 – 96km E of Nago, Japan

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, November 6, 2013 01:13:30 AM
Location (click for map) 26.6205°, 128.945°
Depth 31.56km | 19.61mi
Region 96km E of Nago, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 0.638, rms 0.67

5.1 – North Indian Ocean

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 5, 2013 08:47:06 PM
Location (click for map) 1.8252°, 89.6563°
Depth 9.66km | 6mi
Region North Indian Ocean
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 9.3, rms 0.83

5 – 150km WNW of Hihifo, Tonga

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 5, 2013 06:17:01 PM
Location (click for map) -15.2227°, -174.9368°
Depth 287.4km | 178.58mi
Region 150km WNW of Hihifo, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 51, dmin 3.326, rms 0.85

5.1 – 85km NNW of Lae, Papua New Guinea

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, November 5, 2013 01:47:13 AM
Location (click for map) -6.0425°, 146.6112°
Depth 59.46km | 36.95mi
Region 85km NNW of Lae, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 3.384, rms 0.86

5 – Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Monday, November 4, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, November 4, 2013 02:39:33 PM
Location (click for map) 8.9963°, -40.4863°
Depth 15.64km | 9.72mi
Region Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 76, dmin 12.668, rms 0.62

5.5 – 140km NNE of Bristol Island, South Sandwich Islands

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 05:46:45 PM
Location (click for map) -57.8439°, -25.714°
Depth 65.64km | 40.79mi
Region 140km NNE of Bristol Island, South Sandwich Islands
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 7.006, rms 0.79

5.2 – 155km W of Neiafu, Tonga

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 05:10:23 PM
Location (click for map) -18.5644°, -175.4572°
Depth 209.32km | 130.07mi
Region 155km W of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 77, dmin 5.262, rms 1.04

5.4 – 60km ESE of Haebaru, Japan

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 12:16:56 PM
Location (click for map) 26.0913°, 128.4171°
Depth 19.18km | 11.92mi
Region 60km ESE of Haebaru, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 0.752, rms 0.97

5.9 – 195km SSW of Palimbang, Philippines

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 11:03:38 AM
Location (click for map) 4.6565°, 123.3471°
Depth 532km | 330.57mi
Region 195km SSW of Palimbang, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 3.267, rms 1.42

5.6 – 165km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 10:08:54 AM
Location (click for map) -19.2137°, -172.5332°
Depth 4km | 2.49mi
Region 165km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 5.324, rms 0.94

5.2 – 123km E of Ishinomaki, Japan

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 08:52:56 AM
Location (click for map) 38.2654°, 142.6953°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 123km E of Ishinomaki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 106, dmin 3.761, rms 0.67

5.1 – 1km WNW of Ushiku, Japan

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 05:25:15 AM
Location (click for map) 35.9713°, 140.1213°
Depth 76.63km | 47.62mi
Region 1km WNW of Ushiku, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 1.647, rms 0.88

5.8 – 86km WNW of Kandrian, Papua New Guinea

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 02:42:54 AM
Location (click for map) -5.8583°, 148.8538°
Depth 88.74km | 55.14mi
Region 86km WNW of Kandrian, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 14, dmin 3.902, rms 0.88

5.1 – Western Indian-Antarctic Ridge

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, November 3, 2013 12:12:36 AM
Location (click for map) -49.5402°, 117.3437°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Western Indian-Antarctic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 16.598, rms 0.66

5 – 153km S of False Pass, Alaska

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mwr)
Date and Time Saturday, November 2, 2013 10:32:10 PM
Location (click for map) 53.475°, -163.663°
Depth 36.8km | 22.87mi
Region 153km S of False Pass, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.82

5.1 – 169km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 2, 2013 07:13:35 PM
Location (click for map) -19.2964°, -172.5279°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 169km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 5.404, rms 0.68

5.7 – 177km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mwc)
Date and Time Saturday, November 2, 2013 07:05:56 PM
Location (click for map) -19.2068°, -172.3982°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 177km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 2.339, rms 1.26

5.2 – 143km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 2, 2013 06:56:13 PM
Location (click for map) -19.1504°, -172.7294°
Depth 9.26km | 5.75mi
Region 143km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 105, dmin 19.71, rms 0.61

6.2 – 152km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Magnitude 6.2 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, November 2, 2013 06:53:46 PM
Location (click for map) -19.1711°, -172.6411°
Depth 10.05km | 6.24mi
Region 152km ESE of Neiafu, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 5.297, rms 0.72

5 – 149km SE of Lata, Solomon Islands

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, November 2, 2013 04:38:52 PM
Location (click for map) -11.7325°, 166.7396°
Depth 205.04km | 127.41mi
Region 149km SE of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 62, dmin 7.055, rms 0.81

6 – Easter Island region

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, November 2, 2013 03:52:46 PM
Location (click for map) -23.6357°, -112.5956°
Depth 9.98km | 6.2mi
Region Easter Island region
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 4.558, rms 0.81

5.2 – 70km SSE of Kuril’sk, Russia

Friday, November 1, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 1, 2013 04:30:14 PM
Location (click for map) 44.6308°, 148.1796°
Depth 77.74km | 48.31mi
Region 70km SSE of Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 97, dmin 4.033, rms 0.75

5 – 1km WSW of Nueva Fuerza, Philippines

Friday, November 1, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 1, 2013 01:58:39 PM
Location (click for map) 9.8433°, 124.153°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 1km WSW of Nueva Fuerza, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 81, dmin 5.274, rms 1.09

5.1 – 30km ESE of Ndoi Island, Fiji

Friday, November 1, 2013


Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, November 1, 2013 03:24:09 AM
Location (click for map) -20.7635°, -178.4356°
Depth 547.86km | 340.42mi
Region 30km ESE of Ndoi Island, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 8.178, rms 0.76

October 2013

6.6 – 41km SSW of Coquimbo, Chile

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Magnitude 6.6 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, October 31, 2013 11:03:59 PM
Location (click for map) -30.2921°, -71.5215°
Depth 27km | 16.78mi
Region 41km SSW of Coquimbo, Chile
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 0.636, rms 1.28

5.1 – 62km NW of Taltal, Chile

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwr)
Date and Time Thursday, October 31, 2013 03:39:40 PM
Location (click for map) -24.9719°, -70.8941°
Depth 9.52km | 5.92mi
Region 62km NW of Taltal, Chile
Parameters nst, gap 98, dmin 1.197, rms 0.95

5.3 – 121km E of Ishinomaki, Japan

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 31, 2013 03:01:05 PM
Location (click for map) 38.2487°, 142.6742°
Depth 22.02km | 13.68mi
Region 121km E of Ishinomaki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 3.78, rms 0.61

6.3 – 46km SSW of Hualian, Taiwan

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Magnitude 6.3 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, October 31, 2013 12:02:08 PM
Location (click for map) 23.5904°, 121.4366°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 46km SSW of Hualian, Taiwan
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 0.234, rms 1.29

5 – 232km ENE of Ile Rodrigues, Mauritius

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 31, 2013 09:01:59 AM
Location (click for map) -18.6018°, 65.3061°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 232km ENE of Ile Rodrigues, Mauritius
Parameters nst, gap 54, dmin 9.356, rms 1.14

5.1 – 31km S of Qian’an, China

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 31, 2013 03:03:34 AM
Location (click for map) 44.7149°, 124.0036°
Depth 10.69km | 6.64mi
Region 31km S of Qian’an, China
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 3.987, rms 0.93

5.1 – 45km N of Sangumata, Indonesia

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 31, 2013 12:34:00 AM
Location (click for map) -8.9987°, 119.6285°
Depth 37.56km | 23.34mi
Region 45km N of Sangumata, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 48, dmin 2.603, rms 1.35

5 – South of the Fiji Islands

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 30, 2013 01:59:59 PM
Location (click for map) -25.2257°, 179.7994°
Depth 525.68km | 326.64mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 96, dmin 4.485, rms 0.55

5 – 23km WNW of Port-Olry, Vanuatu

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 30, 2013 08:52:48 AM
Location (click for map) -14.9933°, 166.8413°
Depth 44.2km | 27.46mi
Region 23km WNW of Port-Olry, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 61, dmin 6.55, rms 0.99

6.2 – 88km W of Constitucion, Chile

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Magnitude 6.2 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 30, 2013 02:51:47 AM
Location (click for map) -35.314°, -73.395°
Depth 41.5km | 25.79mi
Region 88km W of Constitucion, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.68

5.8 – 71km W of Constitucion, Chile

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 30, 2013 02:29:12 AM
Location (click for map) -35.439°, -73.193°
Depth 39.2km | 24.36mi
Region 71km W of Constitucion, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.26

5.1 – 16km WNW of Xitumenzi, China

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 29, 2013 08:17:50 PM
Location (click for map) 43.2375°, 130.8797°
Depth 554.28km | 344.41mi
Region 16km WNW of Xitumenzi, China
Parameters nst, gap 36, dmin 1.253, rms 0.76

5.3 – 134km SSE of Sarangani, Philippines

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 29, 2013 03:45:26 PM
Location (click for map) 4.3349°, 126.0462°
Depth 91.1km | 56.61mi
Region 134km SSE of Sarangani, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 2.756, rms 0.69

5 – 93km SSE of Nikolski, Alaska

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 29, 2013 02:44:13 PM
Location (click for map) 52.167°, -168.3368°
Depth 17.15km | 10.66mi
Region 93km SSE of Nikolski, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 63, dmin 0.866, rms 0.92

5 – 25km NNW of Chivay, Peru

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 29, 2013 12:51:05 PM
Location (click for map) -15.4358°, -71.7232°
Depth 130.53km | 81.11mi
Region 25km NNW of Chivay, Peru
Parameters nst, gap 59, dmin 3.559, rms 0.86

5.1 – 78km NNE of Ndoi Island, Fiji

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 29, 2013 11:01:54 AM
Location (click for map) -20.0571°, -178.2861°
Depth 582.61km | 362.02mi
Region 78km NNE of Ndoi Island, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 7.941, rms 0.88

5.9 – Balleny Islands region

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 29, 2013 10:37:55 AM
Location (click for map) -61.6949°, 154.6743°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Balleny Islands region
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 7.563, rms 0.8

5 – South of the Fiji Islands

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 29, 2013 08:21:53 AM
Location (click for map) -25.9668°, -177.1624°
Depth 71.27km | 44.29mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 56, dmin 3.335, rms 1.09

5 – 47km NNW of Visokoi Island,

Monday, October 28, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 28, 2013 08:36:01 PM
Location (click for map) -56.2802°, -27.3631°
Depth 115.97km | 72.06mi
Region 47km NNW of Visokoi Island,
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 5.585, rms 0.72

5.3 – 54km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Monday, October 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 28, 2013 08:01:23 PM
Location (click for map) -6.3506°, 154.9898°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 54km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 5.79, rms 1.17

5.3 – 300km SW of Longyearbyen, Svalbard and Jan Mayen

Monday, October 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 28, 2013 02:54:28 PM
Location (click for map) 76.2836°, 7.1159°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 300km SW of Longyearbyen, Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 2.843, rms 1.13

5 – Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan

Sunday, October 27, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 27, 2013 11:01:45 PM
Location (click for map) 37.1804°, 144.7063°
Depth 10.08km | 6.26mi
Region Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 4.974, rms 0.56

5.5 – Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan

Sunday, October 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 27, 2013 06:13:06 PM
Location (click for map) 37.0876°, 144.5734°
Depth 20.16km | 12.53mi
Region Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 5.041, rms 0.84

5.1 – 12km S of Guarumal, Panama

Sunday, October 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 27, 2013 03:28:20 PM
Location (click for map) 8.239°, -82.5207°
Depth 49.79km | 30.94mi
Region 12km S of Guarumal, Panama
Parameters nst, gap 54, dmin 2.352, rms 0.85

5 – 28km SE of Lata, Solomon Islands

Sunday, October 27, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 27, 2013 12:07:57 PM
Location (click for map) -10.9268°, 165.9822°
Depth 47.28km | 29.38mi
Region 28km SE of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 6.121, rms 0.98

5.3 – 50km NNW of Visokoi Island,

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 09:51:57 PM
Location (click for map) -56.2581°, -27.4062°
Depth 109.43km | 68mi
Region 50km NNW of Visokoi Island,
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 5.556, rms 0.65

5.5 – Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 09:27:34 PM
Location (click for map) 37.1057°, 144.6715°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 5.04, rms 0.78

5.1 – Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 05:57:39 PM
Location (click for map) 37.2349°, 144.7009°
Depth 33.88km | 21.05mi
Region Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 88, dmin 4.92, rms 0.85

5.7 – 81km NE of Pangai, Tonga

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 05:54:31 PM
Location (click for map) -19.3607°, -173.728°
Depth 8.74km | 5.43mi
Region 81km NE of Pangai, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 5.734, rms 0.86

5.4 – Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 05:27:59 PM
Location (click for map) 37.1657°, 144.9698°
Depth 37.01km | 23mi
Region Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 100, dmin 5.041, rms 1.34

5.1 – Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 05:22:53 PM
Location (click for map) 37.2544°, 144.6049°
Depth 35.67km | 22.16mi
Region Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 137, dmin 5.175, rms 1.48

5.2 – Carlsberg Ridge

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 05:11:24 PM
Location (click for map) -1.038°, 67.5906°
Depth 16.46km | 10.23mi
Region Carlsberg Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 5.613, rms 1.07

7.1 – Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 7.1 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 05:10:19 PM
Location (click for map) 37.1557°, 144.6611°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region Off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 10, dmin 3.968, rms 1.01

5.1 – 85km S of Hihifo, Tonga

Friday, October 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 25, 2013 03:21:19 AM
Location (click for map) -16.7173°, -173.6354°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 85km S of Hihifo, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 3.317, rms 0.6

5.3 – 206km SW of Vaini, Tonga

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 24, 2013 08:32:44 PM
Location (click for map) -22.5863°, -176.5321°
Depth 122.72km | 76.25mi
Region 206km SW of Vaini, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 6.749, rms 0.94

6.7 – East of the South Sandwich Islands

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Magnitude 6.7 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, October 24, 2013 07:25:10 PM
Location (click for map) -58.153°, -12.7964°
Depth 22.87km | 14.21mi
Region East of the South Sandwich Islands
Parameters nst, gap 53, dmin 13.711, rms 0.99

5.4 – 289km N of Bamboo Flat, India

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 24, 2013 05:57:36 PM
Location (click for map) 14.2917°, 93.0654°
Depth 23km | 14.29mi
Region 289km N of Bamboo Flat, India
Parameters nst, gap 19, dmin 2.638, rms 0.91

5 – 71km W of Pizarro, Colombia

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 24, 2013 02:44:33 PM
Location (click for map) 5.0544°, -78.001°
Depth 28.95km | 17.99mi
Region 71km W of Pizarro, Colombia
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 4.805, rms 1.22

5 – 45km SSE of Ozernovskiy, Russia

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 24, 2013 01:37:35 AM
Location (click for map) 51.1189°, 156.7444°
Depth 145.99km | 90.71mi
Region 45km SSE of Ozernovskiy, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 80, dmin 2.077, rms 0.7

5.5 – 93km NE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, October 24, 2013 12:25:46 AM
Location (click for map) -30.8285°, -178.2171°
Depth 49.14km | 30.53mi
Region 93km NE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 1.597, rms 1.44

5 – Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 23, 2013 09:01:37 PM
Location (click for map) 3.4657°, -31.451°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 10.245, rms 0.85

5 – South of the Fiji Islands

Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 23, 2013 04:32:40 PM
Location (click for map) -22.6225°, 179.2107°
Depth 585.3km | 363.69mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 62, dmin 7.079, rms 0.98

6 – 283km SW of Vaini, Tonga

Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 23, 2013 08:23:30 AM
Location (click for map) -23.0067°, -177.1425°
Depth 160km | 99.42mi
Region 283km SW of Vaini, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 19, dmin 6.252, rms 0.84

5.5 – 57km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 22, 2013 09:15:51 PM
Location (click for map) -6.3449°, 154.9657°
Depth 50km | 31.07mi
Region 57km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 5.813, rms 1.07

5.1 – 47km ESE of Sarangani, Philippines

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 22, 2013 08:53:57 PM
Location (click for map) 5.2014°, 125.843°
Depth 54.31km | 33.75mi
Region 47km ESE of Sarangani, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 53, dmin 1.874, rms 1.12

5.1 – 9km ESE of Inabanga, Philippines

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 22, 2013 06:42:02 PM
Location (click for map) 10.0082°, 124.155°
Depth 12.86km | 7.99mi
Region 9km ESE of Inabanga, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 3.241, rms 1.15

5.4 – 31km S of Sigli, Indonesia

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 22, 2013 05:40:39 AM
Location (click for map) 5.1033°, 95.9709°
Depth 9.75km | 6.06mi
Region 31km S of Sigli, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 0.98, rms 1.43

5.3 – 83km ENE of Namie, Japan

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 22, 2013 01:18:45 AM
Location (click for map) 37.7299°, 141.8937°
Depth 25.7km | 15.97mi
Region 83km ENE of Namie, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 81, dmin 2.731, rms 0.74

5 – 94km SW of Atka, Alaska

Monday, October 21, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 21, 2013 11:17:06 PM
Location (click for map) 51.7003°, -175.312°
Depth 12.8km | 7.95mi
Region 94km SW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.36

5 – 129km W of Lebu, Chile

Monday, October 21, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 21, 2013 06:17:22 PM
Location (click for map) -37.809°, -75.1°
Depth 25.1km | 15.6mi
Region 129km W of Lebu, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.58

5 – 231km ESE of Tadine, New Caledonia

Monday, October 21, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 21, 2013 05:21:04 PM
Location (click for map) -22.6324°, 169.8°
Depth 28.48km | 17.7mi
Region 231km ESE of Tadine, New Caledonia
Parameters nst, gap 107, dmin 2.001, rms 0.75

5.1 – 281km SSE of Georgetown, Saint Helena

Monday, October 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 21, 2013 01:50:15 PM
Location (click for map) -10.1716°, -13.1911°
Depth 10.03km | 6.23mi
Region 281km SSE of Georgetown, Saint Helena
Parameters nst, gap 63, dmin 2.506, rms 0.84

5.5 – 180km S of `Ohonua, Tonga

Monday, October 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, October 21, 2013 04:01:54 AM
Location (click for map) -22.9456°, -174.7121°
Depth 11.91km | 7.4mi
Region 180km S of `Ohonua, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 6.907, rms 1.37

5.4 – 56km NNE of Thang, India

Monday, October 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, October 21, 2013 02:27:13 AM
Location (click for map) 35.3406°, 77.0837°
Depth 48.7km | 30.26mi
Region 56km NNE of Thang, India
Parameters nst, gap 20, dmin 3.573, rms 1.13

5.3 – 6km ENE of Balilihan, Philippines

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 20, 2013 11:03:20 PM
Location (click for map) 9.7837°, 124.0278°
Depth 23.14km | 14.38mi
Region 6km ENE of Balilihan, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 3.102, rms 0.85

5.4 – 111km NNE of Thang, India

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 20, 2013 07:45:07 PM
Location (click for map) 35.7595°, 77.4189°
Depth 96.76km | 60.12mi
Region 111km NNE of Thang, India
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 4.014, rms 0.72

5.1 – 45km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 20, 2013 06:48:03 PM
Location (click for map) -6.4521°, 155.0929°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 45km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 54, dmin 8.387, rms 0.98

5.6 – 94km ENE of Visokoi Island,

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwc)
Date and Time Sunday, October 20, 2013 01:16:38 PM
Location (click for map) -56.5117°, -25.6931°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 94km ENE of Visokoi Island,
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 6.542, rms 0.55

5 – West of the Galapagos Islands

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 20, 2013 12:10:11 PM
Location (click for map) 2.2325°, -99.8882°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region West of the Galapagos Islands
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 15.29, rms 0.95

5.3 – 10km WSW of Loon, Philippines

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 20, 2013 08:05:39 AM
Location (click for map) 9.7683°, 123.6983°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 10km WSW of Loon, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 3.263, rms 1.01

5.2 – 76km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Saturday, October 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, October 19, 2013 10:49:55 PM
Location (click for map) -6.5716°, 154.8468°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 76km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 5.799, rms 0.63

6.6 – 99km SW of Etchoropo, Mexico

Saturday, October 19, 2013

Magnitude 6.6 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, October 19, 2013 05:54:54 PM
Location (click for map) 26.0913°, -110.3209°
Depth 9.45km | 5.87mi
Region 99km SW of Etchoropo, Mexico
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 1.98, rms 1.1

5.2 – 210km SSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Saturday, October 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, October 19, 2013 11:37:13 AM
Location (click for map) -7.9591°, 154.5197°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 210km SSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 39, dmin 5.563, rms 0.8

5.2 – 36km SE of Surab, Pakistan

Friday, October 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 18, 2013 01:18:22 PM
Location (click for map) 28.2609°, 66.5271°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 36km SE of Surab, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 6.619, rms 0.93

5.2 – 24km SSE of Lata, Solomon Islands

Thursday, October 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 17, 2013 11:13:11 AM
Location (click for map) -10.9099°, 165.9418°
Depth 55.5km | 34.49mi
Region 24km SSE of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 6.079, rms 1.11

5.3 – 6km SW of Bood, Philippines

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 16, 2013 11:37:28 PM
Location (click for map) 9.702°, 123.7936°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 6km SW of Bood, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 3.156, rms 1.39

5.2 – 11km WNW of Duljo, Philippines

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 16, 2013 03:08:26 PM
Location (click for map) 9.617°, 123.626°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 11km WNW of Duljo, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 72, dmin 3.184, rms 0.78

5 – 258km SSW of `Ohonua, Tonga

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 16, 2013 02:59:01 PM
Location (click for map) -23.5704°, -175.674°
Depth 18.52km | 11.51mi
Region 258km SSW of `Ohonua, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 64, dmin 6.977, rms 0.95

5.3 – 65km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 16, 2013 12:46:53 PM
Location (click for map) -6.3958°, 154.8991°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 65km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 5.843, rms 0.88

6.8 – 62km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Magnitude 6.8 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 16, 2013 10:30:58 AM
Location (click for map) -6.4456°, 154.931°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 62km WSW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 9, dmin 5.79, rms 0.94

5 – 3km WNW of San Agustin, Philippines

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 16, 2013 07:31:28 AM
Location (click for map) 9.6439°, 123.7571°
Depth 20.79km | 12.92mi
Region 3km WNW of San Agustin, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 73, dmin 3.129, rms 0.99

5 – 8km NW of Duljo, Philippines

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 16, 2013 01:36:58 AM
Location (click for map) 9.6479°, 123.671°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 8km NW of Duljo, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 3.182, rms 0.66

5 – 42km NNE of Abapo, Bolivia

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 08:13:20 PM
Location (click for map) -18.5026°, -63.2712°
Depth 38.2km | 23.74mi
Region 42km NNE of Abapo, Bolivia
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 3.263, rms 1.05

5.1 – 58km NE of Luganville, Vanuatu

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 06:49:43 PM
Location (click for map) -15.202°, 167.5858°
Depth 130.07km | 80.82mi
Region 58km NE of Luganville, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 6.259, rms 0.86

5.1 – 6km ENE of Loon, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 01:51:20 PM
Location (click for map) 9.8126°, 123.8515°
Depth 20.78km | 12.91mi
Region 6km ENE of Loon, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 3.216, rms 1.07

5.3 – 4km SSE of Clarin, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 08:52:18 AM
Location (click for map) 9.9194°, 124.0356°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 4km SSE of Clarin, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 3.216, rms 0.69

5.7 – 11km W of Loon, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 08:42:49 AM
Location (click for map) 9.7931°, 123.6885°
Depth 16.01km | 9.95mi
Region 11km W of Loon, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 3.289, rms 0.61

5.6 – 4km NW of Sierra Bullones, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 08:36:20 AM
Location (click for map) 9.8331°, 124.261°
Depth 6.74km | 4.19mi
Region 4km NW of Sierra Bullones, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 3.039, rms 0.62

5 – 0km ENE of Catigbian, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 04:22:27 AM
Location (click for map) 9.8526°, 124.0053°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 0km ENE of Catigbian, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 3.173, rms 0.74

5 – 1km S of Panaytayon, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 02:41:59 AM
Location (click for map) 9.9337°, 123.9839°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 1km S of Panaytayon, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 57, dmin 3.253, rms 0.78

5.1 – 9km NNW of San Agustin, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 01:37:54 AM
Location (click for map) 9.7124°, 123.7433°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 9km NNW of San Agustin, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 97, dmin 3.192, rms 0.55

5.3 – 6km N of Nueva Fuerza, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 12:33:43 AM
Location (click for map) 9.9045°, 124.165°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 6km N of Nueva Fuerza, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 3.144, rms 0.92

5.2 – 0km N of Danao, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 12:28:57 AM
Location (click for map) 9.9521°, 124.2232°
Depth 17.31km | 10.76mi
Region 0km N of Danao, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 3.162, rms 0.99

5.1 – 1km ENE of Casay, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 12:20:27 AM
Location (click for map) 9.8249°, 123.5594°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 1km ENE of Casay, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 114, dmin 3.389, rms 1.12

5.3 – 2km SSW of Inabanga, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 12:19:26 AM
Location (click for map) 10.0098°, 124.0544°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 2km SSW of Inabanga, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 91, dmin 3.287, rms 1.22

5 – 5km W of San Miguel, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 12:17:39 AM
Location (click for map) 9.9697°, 124.1844°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 5km W of San Miguel, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 118, dmin 3.194, rms 1.46

7.1 – 4km SE of Sagbayan, Philippines

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Magnitude 7.1 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 15, 2013 12:12:32 AM
Location (click for map) 9.8796°, 124.1167°
Depth 19.04km | 11.83mi
Region 4km SE of Sagbayan, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 12, dmin 3.144, rms 1.3

5 – 72km SSW of Painan, Indonesia

Monday, October 14, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 14, 2013 11:56:23 PM
Location (click for map) -1.9733°, 100.37°
Depth 42.3km | 26.28mi
Region 72km SSW of Painan, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 63, dmin 2.38, rms 0.98

5 – 250km NNE of Ndoi Island, Fiji

Monday, October 14, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 14, 2013 04:09:10 PM
Location (click for map) -18.4809°, -178.0122°
Depth 548.44km | 340.78mi
Region 250km NNE of Ndoi Island, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 7.518, rms 0.84

5.1 – West of Macquarie Island

Sunday, October 13, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 13, 2013 09:39:49 PM
Location (click for map) -54.4309°, 143.4774°
Depth 15.1km | 9.38mi
Region West of Macquarie Island
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 11.804, rms 1.05

5.6 – 35km WSW of Meulaboh, Indonesia

Sunday, October 13, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 13, 2013 05:32:45 PM
Location (click for map) 3.9633°, 95.8634°
Depth 46km | 28.58mi
Region 35km WSW of Meulaboh, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 1.657, rms 1.17

5.1 – 102km SSE of Suva, Fiji

Sunday, October 13, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 13, 2013 07:15:23 AM
Location (click for map) -18.952°, 178.9066°
Depth 57.5km | 35.73mi
Region 102km SSE of Suva, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 63, dmin 10.246, rms 0.86

5.3 – 45km N of `Alaqahdari-ye Kiran wa Munjan, Afghanistan

Sunday, October 13, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 13, 2013 01:17:54 AM
Location (click for map) 36.4392°, 70.7061°
Depth 210km | 130.49mi
Region 45km N of `Alaqahdari-ye Kiran wa Munjan, Afghanistan
Parameters nst, gap 20, dmin 2.33, rms 0.83

5.1 – Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Saturday, October 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, October 12, 2013 09:21:31 PM
Location (click for map) -52.1635°, -5.2196°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 62, dmin 19.608, rms 0.73

5.5 – 161km NE of Amsterdam Island,

Saturday, October 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, October 12, 2013 08:01:37 PM
Location (click for map) -36.7364°, 78.7182°
Depth 4.41km | 2.74mi
Region 161km NE of Amsterdam Island,
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 22.21, rms 0.45

5.5 – 28km NNW of Tilamuta, Indonesia

Saturday, October 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Saturday, October 12, 2013 02:30:09 PM
Location (click for map) 0.7452°, 122.2107°
Depth 96.63km | 60.04mi
Region 28km NNW of Tilamuta, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 1.861, rms 1.17

6.6 – 31km W of Platanos, Greece

Saturday, October 12, 2013

Magnitude 6.6 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, October 12, 2013 01:11:53 PM
Location (click for map) 35.5142°, 23.2523°
Depth 40km | 24.85mi
Region 31km W of Platanos, Greece
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 1.984, rms 1.21

6 – 36km N of Gueiria, Venezuela

Saturday, October 12, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, October 12, 2013 02:10:27 AM
Location (click for map) 10.9048°, -62.315°
Depth 63km | 39.15mi
Region 36km N of Gueiria, Venezuela
Parameters nst, gap 29, dmin 1.381, rms 1.06

6.2 – 94km NNE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Friday, October 11, 2013

Magnitude 6.2 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, October 11, 2013 09:25:00 PM
Location (click for map) -30.6623°, -178.4838°
Depth 151km | 93.83mi
Region 94km NNE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 1.492, rms 1.2

5.3 – 112km SW of Kuripan, Indonesia

Friday, October 11, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 11, 2013 01:12:57 PM
Location (click for map) -5.7979°, 103.0884°
Depth 37.58km | 23.35mi
Region 112km SW of Kuripan, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 1.434, rms 1.02

5.3 – 85km WNW of Kirakira, Solomon Islands

Friday, October 11, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, October 11, 2013 01:51:20 AM
Location (click for map) -10.2785°, 161.1647°
Depth 79km | 49.09mi
Region 85km WNW of Kirakira, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 18, dmin 1.461, rms 0.7

5 – Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Thursday, October 10, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 10, 2013 04:03:52 AM
Location (click for map) -16.3462°, -14.2106°
Depth 10.23km | 6.36mi
Region Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 63, dmin 23.686, rms 0.78

5 – 56km SW of Uyuni, Bolivia

Thursday, October 10, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 10, 2013 03:32:22 AM
Location (click for map) -20.8628°, -67.1623°
Depth 192.32km | 119.5mi
Region 56km SW of Uyuni, Bolivia
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 2.18, rms 1.1

5.1 – 64km SSW of Nikolski, Alaska

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 9, 2013 07:49:04 PM
Location (click for map) 52.4386°, -169.3514°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 64km SSW of Nikolski, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 125, dmin 0.613, rms 0.73

5.2 – 141km NE of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 9, 2013 05:03:46 PM
Location (click for map) -22.1415°, -67.1284°
Depth 159.32km | 99mi
Region 141km NE of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 1.715, rms 0.71

5 – Western Indian-Antarctic Ridge

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 9, 2013 03:26:27 AM
Location (click for map) -50.1491°, 119.8508°
Depth 15.2km | 9.44mi
Region Western Indian-Antarctic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 75, dmin 16.87, rms 1.05

5 – 137km SSW of Nishinoomote, Japan

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 9, 2013 01:06:16 AM
Location (click for map) 29.5813°, 130.4707°
Depth 49.08km | 30.5mi
Region 137km SSW of Nishinoomote, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 105, dmin 3.353, rms 1.17

5.1 – 193km E of Kuril’sk, Russia

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 8, 2013 08:26:19 PM
Location (click for map) 45.3496°, 150.3447°
Depth 33km | 20.51mi
Region 193km E of Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 5.509, rms 0.69

5.7 – West of Macquarie Island

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 8, 2013 01:39:55 PM
Location (click for map) -58.8864°, 149.0414°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region West of Macquarie Island
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 7.007, rms 0.89

5.1 – 138km ENE of Samarai, Papua New Guinea

Monday, October 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 7, 2013 03:17:25 PM
Location (click for map) -10.1687°, 151.8481°
Depth 34.62km | 21.51mi
Region 138km ENE of Samarai, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 4.682, rms 0.96

5.3 – 137km ENE of Samarai, Papua New Guinea

Monday, October 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, October 7, 2013 01:32:09 PM
Location (click for map) -10.081°, 151.7996°
Depth 35.29km | 21.93mi
Region 137km ENE of Samarai, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 4.622, rms 0.96

6.2 – West Chile Rise

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Magnitude 6.2 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, October 6, 2013 09:33:19 PM
Location (click for map) -36.7267°, -97.4761°
Depth 10.28km | 6.39mi
Region West Chile Rise
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 20.626, rms 1.33

5 – 26km SW of Isangel, Vanuatu

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 6, 2013 09:18:49 PM
Location (click for map) -19.7298°, 169.096°
Depth 79.3km | 49.27mi
Region 26km SW of Isangel, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 2.007, rms 1.05

6 – Mariana Islands region

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, October 6, 2013 04:38:08 PM
Location (click for map) 12.3115°, 141.6905°
Depth 104km | 64.62mi
Region Mariana Islands region
Parameters nst, gap 12, dmin 3.348, rms 0.73

5 – West Chile Rise

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, October 6, 2013 04:16:04 PM
Location (click for map) -41.324°, -85.2612°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region West Chile Rise
Parameters nst, gap 132, dmin 18.203, rms 0.67

5.3 – 10km W of Nereju, Romania

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, October 6, 2013 01:37:20 AM
Location (click for map) 45.7013°, 26.5781°
Depth 127km | 78.91mi
Region 10km W of Nereju, Romania
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 0.491, rms 1.05

5 – 143km S of Raoul Island, New Zealand

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, October 5, 2013 02:35:16 PM
Location (click for map) -30.5601°, -177.7595°
Depth 9.57km | 5.95mi
Region 143km S of Raoul Island, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 131, dmin 1.318, rms 1.27

5 – 93km SE of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, October 5, 2013 08:57:23 AM
Location (click for map) 51.5964°, -173.2453°
Depth 24.6km | 15.29mi
Region 93km SE of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 108, dmin 0.845, rms 0.92

5 – 153km SSE of Amsterdam Island,

Friday, October 4, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 4, 2013 05:30:38 PM
Location (click for map) -39.1261°, 78.1486°
Depth 14.26km | 8.86mi
Region 153km SSE of Amsterdam Island,
Parameters nst, gap 56, dmin 29.77, rms 0.88

6.4 – 113km SE of Amsterdam Island,

Friday, October 4, 2013

Magnitude 6.4 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, October 4, 2013 05:26:13 PM
Location (click for map) -38.6062°, 78.3693°
Depth 12.72km | 7.9mi
Region 113km SE of Amsterdam Island,
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 20.977, rms 1.14

5.2 – 43km E of Tobelo, Indonesia

Friday, October 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 4, 2013 12:44:13 PM
Location (click for map) 1.6961°, 128.4022°
Depth 66.64km | 41.41mi
Region 43km E of Tobelo, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 1.383, rms 0.56

5.2 – 184km SE of Mburukullu, Indonesia

Friday, October 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 4, 2013 10:35:42 AM
Location (click for map) -11.3943°, 121.7886°
Depth 8.4km | 5.22mi
Region 184km SE of Mburukullu, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 58, dmin 2.187, rms 0.99

5.1 – 96km NE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Friday, October 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 4, 2013 08:31:55 AM
Location (click for map) -30.8687°, -178.1252°
Depth 34.56km | 21.47mi
Region 96km NE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 69, dmin 1.627, rms 1.35

5 – 35km NW of Jiangyou, China

Friday, October 4, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, October 4, 2013 03:01:13 AM
Location (click for map) 32.0096°, 104.4756°
Depth 10.12km | 6.29mi
Region 35km NW of Jiangyou, China
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 4.245, rms 0.54

5.4 – 73km E of Nikol’skoye, Russia

Thursday, October 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 3, 2013 05:46:53 PM
Location (click for map) 55.1858°, 167.1448°
Depth 10.87km | 6.75mi
Region 73km E of Nikol’skoye, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 4.788, rms 0.86

5.1 – 63km WSW of Raoul Island, New Zealand

Thursday, October 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 3, 2013 05:32:42 PM
Location (click for map) -29.5804°, -178.4527°
Depth 189.1km | 117.5mi
Region 63km WSW of Raoul Island, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 65, dmin 0.566, rms 0.98

5 – 108km W of Sola, Vanuatu

Thursday, October 3, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 3, 2013 03:24:23 PM
Location (click for map) -13.704°, 166.5656°
Depth 60.17km | 37.39mi
Region 108km W of Sola, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 85, dmin 7.746, rms 0.99

5.2 – 11km WNW of Singtam, India

Thursday, October 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 3, 2013 06:12:39 AM
Location (click for map) 27.2898°, 88.4022°
Depth 9.87km | 6.13mi
Region 11km WNW of Singtam, India
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 3.395, rms 0.61

5.2 – 46km ESE of Naze, Japan

Thursday, October 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, October 3, 2013 04:13:50 AM
Location (click for map) 28.2046°, 129.9159°
Depth 23.67km | 14.71mi
Region 46km ESE of Naze, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 38, dmin 1.997, rms 0.92

5.2 – 150km WNW of Abepura, Indonesia

Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 2, 2013 10:06:55 AM
Location (click for map) -2.2588°, 139.2785°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 150km WNW of Abepura, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 16, dmin 7.053, rms 0.81

5 – Owen Fracture Zone region

Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 2, 2013 01:13:17 AM
Location (click for map) 11.112°, 57.5812°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Owen Fracture Zone region
Parameters nst, gap 102, dmin 12.102, rms 1.07

5.7 – Owen Fracture Zone region

Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 2, 2013 01:06:37 AM
Location (click for map) 11.2277°, 57.5902°
Depth 7.89km | 4.9mi
Region Owen Fracture Zone region
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 11.987, rms 0.96

5.3 – 151km N of Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, Ecuador

Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, October 2, 2013 12:57:56 AM
Location (click for map) 0.4698°, -89.5433°
Depth 10.03km | 6.23mi
Region 151km N of Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, Ecuador
Parameters nst, gap 84, dmin 1.357, rms 1.05

5.3 – Reykjanes Ridge

Tuesday, October 1, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 1, 2013 07:41:31 PM
Location (click for map) 55.794°, -34.761°
Depth 7.15km | 4.44mi
Region Reykjanes Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 16, dmin 7.749, rms 0.79

6.7 – Sea of Okhotsk

Tuesday, October 1, 2013


Magnitude 6.7 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, October 1, 2013 03:38:21 AM
Location (click for map) 53.1995°, 152.7864°
Depth 573km | 356.05mi
Region Sea of Okhotsk
Parameters nst, gap 11, dmin 2.958, rms 1.2

September 2013

5.4 – 42km NE of Nuku`alofa, Tonga

Monday, September 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 30, 2013 10:41:03 PM
Location (click for map) -20.8798°, -174.8969°
Depth 47.49km | 29.51mi
Region 42km NE of Nuku`alofa, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 5.006, rms 1.12

5.1 – 142km WNW of Kimbe, Papua New Guinea

Monday, September 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 30, 2013 12:25:19 PM
Location (click for map) -5.0668°, 148.9516°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 142km WNW of Kimbe, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 3.394, rms 0.61

5.5 – Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Monday, September 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Monday, September 30, 2013 08:16:09 AM
Location (click for map) 49.4947°, -28.5247°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 14.319, rms 0.73

6.5 – 78km NE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Monday, September 30, 2013

Magnitude 6.5 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, September 30, 2013 05:55:55 AM
Location (click for map) -30.9255°, -178.3234°
Depth 41.54km | 25.81mi
Region 78km NE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 1.709, rms 0.82

5.4 – 7km NNW of Curanilahue, Chile

Sunday, September 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, September 29, 2013 11:23:16 PM
Location (click for map) -37.4071°, -73.3938°
Depth 15.52km | 9.64mi
Region 7km NNW of Curanilahue, Chile
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 2.645, rms 1.26

5.4 – 18km NNW of Lebu, Chile

Sunday, September 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, September 29, 2013 11:06:59 PM
Location (click for map) -37.469°, -73.753°
Depth 49.3km | 30.63mi
Region 18km NNW of Lebu, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.74

5.2 – 284km ESE of Vostok, Russia

Sunday, September 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, September 29, 2013 01:31:35 PM
Location (click for map) 48.1718°, 152.5885°
Depth 152.83km | 94.96mi
Region 284km ESE of Vostok, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 29, dmin 5.914, rms 0.66

5.5 – 67km S of Hihifo, Tonga

Saturday, September 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Saturday, September 28, 2013 11:13:47 AM
Location (click for map) -16.5507°, -173.8364°
Depth 58.94km | 36.62mi
Region 67km S of Hihifo, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 3.293, rms 0.58

6.8 – 85km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan

Saturday, September 28, 2013

Magnitude 6.8 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, September 28, 2013 07:34:06 AM
Location (click for map) 27.1825°, 65.5052°
Depth 12km | 7.46mi
Region 85km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 7.359, rms 0.91

5 – East of the South Sandwich Islands

Saturday, September 28, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 28, 2013 02:39:43 AM
Location (click for map) -59.5048°, -19.1157°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region East of the South Sandwich Islands
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 13.863, rms 0.79

5 – 117km SE of Honiara, Solomon Islands

Friday, September 27, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 27, 2013 09:52:49 PM
Location (click for map) -10.1792°, 160.7103°
Depth 47.46km | 29.49mi
Region 117km SE of Honiara, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 1.052, rms 0.59

5.2 – 120km WNW of Cabra, Philippines

Friday, September 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 27, 2013 08:03:17 AM
Location (click for map) 14.42°, 119.0733°
Depth 29.65km | 18.42mi
Region 120km WNW of Cabra, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 8.566, rms 0.73

5.5 – 108km WSW of Puerto Madero, Mexico

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 26, 2013 06:46:03 AM
Location (click for map) 14.4361°, -93.3857°
Depth 8.82km | 5.48mi
Region 108km WSW of Puerto Madero, Mexico
Parameters nst, gap 82, dmin 1.181, rms 1.2

5.4 – Reykjanes Ridge

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 26, 2013 01:18:54 AM
Location (click for map) 57.5481°, -33.0433°
Depth 9.9km | 6.15mi
Region Reykjanes Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 7.285, rms 1.02

5 – 49km NW of Rabaul, Papua New Guinea

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 25, 2013 06:22:58 PM
Location (click for map) -3.8468°, 151.9005°
Depth 35.68km | 22.17mi
Region 49km NW of Rabaul, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 81, dmin 4.869, rms 0.82

7.1 – 46km SSE of Acari, Peru

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Magnitude 7.1 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 25, 2013 04:42:43 PM
Location (click for map) -15.8385°, -74.5112°
Depth 40km | 24.85mi
Region 46km SSE of Acari, Peru
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 4.446, rms 0.9

5.4 – 127km W of Attu Station, Alaska

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 25, 2013 01:58:16 PM
Location (click for map) 52.9375°, 171.3036°
Depth 23.31km | 14.48mi
Region 127km W of Attu Station, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 1.711, rms 0.66

5.2 – 40km NNE of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 25, 2013 01:14:40 PM
Location (click for map) -22.5859°, -68.0596°
Depth 117.15km | 72.79mi
Region 40km NNE of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 0.787, rms 0.78

5.5 – Southern East Pacific Rise

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 25, 2013 07:40:23 AM
Location (click for map) -50.0313°, -113.9877°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southern East Pacific Rise
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 37.874, rms 1.01

6.1 – Southern East Pacific Rise

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Magnitude 6.1 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 25, 2013 06:51:24 AM
Location (click for map) -49.9585°, -113.7439°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southern East Pacific Rise
Parameters nst, gap 67, dmin 26.063, rms 1.31

5.4 – South of Tonga

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwc)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 11:38:21 PM
Location (click for map) -24.4424°, -175.0975°
Depth 10.07km | 6.26mi
Region South of Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 5.41, rms 0.59

5.5 – 78km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 05:20:13 PM
Location (click for map) 27.131°, 65.471°
Depth 10.52km | 6.54mi
Region 78km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 7.307, rms 0.85

5 – 130km SW of Druzhina, Russia

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 03:39:30 PM
Location (click for map) 67.5018°, 142.8868°
Depth 14.69km | 9.13mi
Region 130km SW of Druzhina, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 36, dmin 6.414, rms 0.78

5.2 – 98km WSW of Khuzdar, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 02:08:32 PM
Location (click for map) 27.4939°, 65.6874°
Depth 20.97km | 13.03mi
Region 98km WSW of Khuzdar, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 7.479, rms 0.92

5.1 – 185km WNW of Chichi-shima, Japan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 02:07:41 PM
Location (click for map) 27.98°, 140.6326°
Depth 66.18km | 41.12mi
Region 185km WNW of Chichi-shima, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 52, dmin 7.962, rms 0.63

5.6 – 102km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 01:01:39 PM
Location (click for map) 27.3125°, 65.6201°
Depth 14.48km | 9mi
Region 102km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 7.513, rms 0.86

5 – 11km N of Awaran, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 11:50:37 AM
Location (click for map) 26.5617°, 65.2146°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 11km N of Awaran, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 85, dmin 8.209, rms 0.89

5 – 81km SW of Uthal, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 11:44:26 AM
Location (click for map) 25.3764°, 65.9668°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 81km SW of Uthal, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 208, dmin 18.073, rms 1.17

5.1 – 30km NE of Awaran, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 11:41:50 AM
Location (click for map) 26.6776°, 65.4037°
Depth 9.97km | 6.2mi
Region 30km NE of Awaran, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 150, dmin 22.937, rms 1.15

5.8 – 89km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 11:36:27 AM
Location (click for map) 27.2085°, 65.5674°
Depth 10.03km | 6.23mi
Region 89km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 7.704, rms 0.79

7.7 – 61km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 7.7 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 11:29:47 AM
Location (click for map) 26.951°, 65.5009°
Depth 15km | 9.32mi
Region 61km NNE of Awaran, Pakistan
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 7.241, rms 0.93

5.5 – Carlsberg Ridge

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 24, 2013 07:22:50 AM
Location (click for map) 7.3709°, 59.5384°
Depth 4km | 2.49mi
Region Carlsberg Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 12.632, rms 0.57

5.4 – 85km SE of Taron, Papua New Guinea

Monday, September 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, September 23, 2013 05:28:07 PM
Location (click for map) -4.9422°, 153.6421°
Depth 75.39km | 46.85mi
Region 85km SE of Taron, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 19, dmin 1.651, rms 0.88

5.2 – 113km SSW of Kute, Indonesia

Monday, September 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 23, 2013 03:12:55 PM
Location (click for map) -9.8648°, 115.9595°
Depth 39.88km | 24.78mi
Region 113km SSW of Kute, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 2.259, rms 1.14

5.1 – 117km S of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea

Monday, September 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 23, 2013 02:12:19 PM
Location (click for map) -5.4078°, 152.3678°
Depth 53.51km | 33.25mi
Region 117km S of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 1.225, rms 0.9

5 – 103km NNW of Finschhafen, Papua New Guinea

Monday, September 23, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 23, 2013 01:59:00 PM
Location (click for map) -5.8022°, 147.3804°
Depth 111.8km | 69.47mi
Region 103km NNW of Finschhafen, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 3.585, rms 0.88

5.1 – 54km SSW of Shemya Island, Alaska

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 21, 2013 10:58:22 PM
Location (click for map) 52.2792°, 173.7814°
Depth 25.35km | 15.75mi
Region 54km SSW of Shemya Island, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 31, dmin 0.493, rms 0.7

5.8 – 244km SSE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, September 21, 2013 04:48:58 PM
Location (click for map) -33.5102°, -178.0226°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 244km SSE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 27, dmin 5.031, rms 1.24

5.4 – 20km WSW of Naica, Mexico

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, September 21, 2013 12:16:12 PM
Location (click for map) 27.8013°, -105.6794°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 20km WSW of Naica, Mexico
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 0.862, rms 0.54

5 – 118km S of Bristol Island, South Sandwich Islands

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 21, 2013 06:43:10 AM
Location (click for map) -60.0906°, -26.3416°
Depth 9.31km | 5.78mi
Region 118km S of Bristol Island, South Sandwich Islands
Parameters nst, gap 55, dmin 8.009, rms 0.82

6.1 – 111km NNW of Nggilat, Indonesia

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Magnitude 6.1 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, September 21, 2013 01:39:15 AM
Location (click for map) -7.3308°, 120.0106°
Depth 549.92km | 341.7mi
Region 111km NNW of Nggilat, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 2.315, rms 1.04

5.4 – Southwest of Africa

Friday, September 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwc)
Date and Time Friday, September 20, 2013 11:34:14 PM
Location (click for map) -52.2839°, 14.4883°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southwest of Africa
Parameters nst, gap 50, dmin 20.418, rms 0.88

5 – 180km SW of Amatignak Island, Alaska

Friday, September 20, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 20, 2013 08:16:48 PM
Location (click for map) 49.9832°, 179.3254°
Depth 29.8km | 18.52mi
Region 180km SW of Amatignak Island, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 95, dmin 2.149, rms 0.66

5 – 43km NW of Agrihan, Northern Mariana Islands

Friday, September 20, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 20, 2013 07:52:26 PM
Location (click for map) 19.0219°, 145.3493°
Depth 239.41km | 148.76mi
Region 43km NW of Agrihan, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 2.345, rms 0.61

5.4 – 117km WNW of Tobelo, Indonesia

Friday, September 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 20, 2013 03:08:43 PM
Location (click for map) 2.197°, 127.0632°
Depth 77.53km | 48.17mi
Region 117km WNW of Tobelo, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 1.447, rms 0.88

5.7 – 48km NNE of Shwebo, Burma

Friday, September 20, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, September 20, 2013 12:24:46 PM
Location (click for map) 22.9341°, 95.9607°
Depth 4km | 2.49mi
Region 48km NNE of Shwebo, Burma
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 3.995, rms 0.44

5 – 78km S of Nishinoomote, Japan

Friday, September 20, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 20, 2013 06:50:27 AM
Location (click for map) 30.0386°, 131.1453°
Depth 31.58km | 19.62mi
Region 78km S of Nishinoomote, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 95, dmin 3.085, rms 1.03

5 – 56km ESE of Hongtu, China

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, September 19, 2013 09:37:04 PM
Location (click for map) 37.7466°, 101.5133°
Depth 20.5km | 12.74mi
Region 56km ESE of Hongtu, China
Parameters nst, gap 21, dmin 7.064, rms 0.73

5.4 – 8km WNW of Iwaki, Japan

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 19, 2013 05:25:06 PM
Location (click for map) 37.0674°, 140.7879°
Depth 8km | 4.97mi
Region 8km WNW of Iwaki, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 2.135, rms 1.16

5.4 – 72km ENE of Wewak, Papua New Guinea

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 18, 2013 08:53:31 PM
Location (click for map) -3.3141°, 144.2317°
Depth 3.02km | 1.88mi
Region 72km ENE of Wewak, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 3.376, rms 0.99

5.4 – 46km N of Agrihan, Northern Mariana Islands

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 18, 2013 04:48:54 PM
Location (click for map) 19.1862°, 145.6039°
Depth 117km | 72.7mi
Region 46km N of Agrihan, Northern Mariana Islands
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 2.478, rms 0.75

5 – 15km NNW of Massawa, Eritrea

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 18, 2013 09:04:22 AM
Location (click for map) 15.7293°, 39.3681°
Depth 10.08km | 6.26mi
Region 15km NNW of Massawa, Eritrea
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 4.985, rms 0.7

5 – 65km SE of Ofunato, Japan

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 18, 2013 12:27:46 AM
Location (click for map) 38.7119°, 142.3169°
Depth 44.08km | 27.39mi
Region 65km SE of Ofunato, Japan
Parameters nst, gap 74, dmin 3.361, rms 0.89

5 – 16km S of Varto, Turkey

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 17, 2013 08:40:51 PM
Location (click for map) 39.0234°, 41.4924°
Depth 5.33km | 3.31mi
Region 16km S of Varto, Turkey
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 2.012, rms 1.15

5 – Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 17, 2013 04:03:27 PM
Location (click for map) -7.4273°, 128.5383°
Depth 113.36km | 70.44mi
Region Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 2.791, rms 0.81

5.2 – 52km NNW of Port-Olry, Vanuatu

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 17, 2013 10:39:23 AM
Location (click for map) -14.6063°, 166.8905°
Depth 10.1km | 6.28mi
Region 52km NNW of Port-Olry, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 56, dmin 6.922, rms 0.79

5.3 – 21km N of Qvareli, Georgia

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 17, 2013 04:09:13 AM
Location (click for map) 42.1462°, 45.8117°
Depth 5km | 3.11mi
Region 21km N of Qvareli, Georgia
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 0.902, rms 0.83

5.3 – 8km NNW of Elatia, Greece

Monday, September 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, September 16, 2013 03:01:14 PM
Location (click for map) 38.7062°, 22.729°
Depth 7.7km | 4.78mi
Region 8km NNW of Elatia, Greece
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 0.22, rms 0.64

5.5 – Southern East Pacific Rise

Monday, September 16, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Monday, September 16, 2013 07:24:48 AM
Location (click for map) -55.8129°, -124.156°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southern East Pacific Rise
Parameters nst, gap 72, dmin 29.962, rms 0.84

6.1 – 77km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Magnitude 6.1 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, September 15, 2013 04:21:37 PM
Location (click for map) 51.5751°, -174.716°
Depth 24.02km | 14.93mi
Region 77km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 38, dmin 0.705, rms 0.83

5.2 – 137km SE of Nikol’skoye, Russia

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, September 15, 2013 12:23:55 AM
Location (click for map) 54.3876°, 167.6212°
Depth 23.53km | 14.62mi
Region 137km SE of Nikol’skoye, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 20, dmin 4.206, rms 0.71

5.2 – 73km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 14, 2013 08:35:24 PM
Location (click for map) -6.3238°, 154.8217°
Depth 55km | 34.18mi
Region 73km W of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 14, dmin 3.39, rms 0.72

5.4 – 89km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 14, 2013 05:09:03 PM
Location (click for map) 51.4341°, -174.6338°
Depth 24.76km | 15.39mi
Region 89km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 38, dmin 0.815, rms 0.78

5.9 – 89km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, September 14, 2013 03:42:46 PM
Location (click for map) 51.4389°, -174.6365°
Depth 20km | 12.43mi
Region 89km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 0.811, rms 1.24

5.2 – 87km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 14, 2013 12:27:13 AM
Location (click for map) 51.4751°, -174.7226°
Depth 19.14km | 11.89mi
Region 87km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 38, dmin 0.797, rms 0.86

5 – 91km NW of Bouvet Island, Bouvet Island

Friday, September 13, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 13, 2013 07:30:35 PM
Location (click for map) -53.7514°, 2.5397°
Depth 14.64km | 9.1mi
Region 91km NW of Bouvet Island, Bouvet Island
Parameters nst, gap 67, dmin 18.141, rms 1.05

5 – South of the Fiji Islands

Friday, September 13, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, September 13, 2013 09:05:21 AM
Location (click for map) -24.7897°, 178.6793°
Depth 548.94km | 341.1mi
Region South of the Fiji Islands
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 5.37, rms 1.07

5.1 – 87km S of Amukta Island, Alaska

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 12, 2013 03:25:23 PM
Location (click for map) 51.7059°, -171.1899°
Depth 40.46km | 25.14mi
Region 87km S of Amukta Island, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 1.879, rms 0.9

5.2 – 70km SW of Acajutla, El Salvador

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 12, 2013 01:03:07 PM
Location (click for map) 13.1664°, -90.316°
Depth 22km | 13.67mi
Region 70km SW of Acajutla, El Salvador
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 1.175, rms 1.34

5.2 – Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 12, 2013 09:03:46 AM
Location (click for map) -7.4533°, 128.3347°
Depth 161km | 100.04mi
Region Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 19, dmin 2.984, rms 1.06

5 – Pacific-Antarctic Ridge

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 12, 2013 08:51:19 AM
Location (click for map) -54.9462°, -129.2718°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Pacific-Antarctic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 29.848, rms 1.15

6.1 – Central East Pacific Rise

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Magnitude 6.1 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 11, 2013 12:44:13 PM
Location (click for map) -4.5472°, -104.5783°
Depth 10.52km | 6.54mi
Region Central East Pacific Rise
Parameters nst, gap 53, dmin 14.785, rms 0.66

5 – 246km S of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 10, 2013 07:43:11 PM
Location (click for map) -33.6312°, -179.2676°
Depth 24.84km | 15.43mi
Region 246km S of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 134, dmin 4.393, rms 1.47

5 – Southeast Indian Ridge

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 10, 2013 02:53:17 PM
Location (click for map) -45.9155°, 95.8793°
Depth 3.22km | 2mi
Region Southeast Indian Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 21.874, rms 0.58

5 – 120km ESE of Pangai, Tonga

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 10, 2013 07:04:00 AM
Location (click for map) -20.3797°, -173.3775°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 120km ESE of Pangai, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 64, dmin 3.499, rms 0.66

5.2 – 83km ENE of Bunobogu, Indonesia

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 10, 2013 01:12:40 AM
Location (click for map) 1.4292°, 122.2569°
Depth 35.17km | 21.85mi
Region 83km ENE of Bunobogu, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 42, dmin 2.507, rms 1.37

5.2 – Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 10, 2013 12:35:15 AM
Location (click for map) 15.467°, -46.663°
Depth 9.87km | 6.13mi
Region Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 58, dmin 12.711, rms 1.22

5.6 – 77km ENE of Bunobogu, Indonesia

Monday, September 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, September 9, 2013 09:41:33 PM
Location (click for map) 1.3814°, 122.2235°
Depth 22.5km | 13.98mi
Region 77km ENE of Bunobogu, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 23, dmin 2.468, rms 1.34

5.1 – 131km W of Lata, Solomon Islands

Monday, September 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 9, 2013 04:58:09 PM
Location (click for map) -10.6691°, 164.6348°
Depth 41.28km | 25.65mi
Region 131km W of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 102, dmin 4.775, rms 0.7

5.1 – 115km W of Lata, Solomon Islands

Monday, September 9, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 9, 2013 04:31:05 PM
Location (click for map) -10.6821°, 164.7787°
Depth 36.35km | 22.59mi
Region 115km W of Lata, Solomon Islands
Parameters nst, gap 43, dmin 4.915, rms 0.71

5 – 49km NNE of Shwebo, Burma

Monday, September 9, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 9, 2013 03:28:31 AM
Location (click for map) 22.9608°, 95.9365°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 49km NNE of Shwebo, Burma
Parameters nst, gap 60, dmin 4.538, rms 1.03

5.2 – 25km ESE of Farkhar, Afghanistan

Sunday, September 8, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Sunday, September 8, 2013 05:30:20 PM
Location (click for map) 36.5088°, 70.1261°
Depth 212km | 131.73mi
Region 25km ESE of Farkhar, Afghanistan
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 2.153, rms 1.07

5 – 110km NE of Iquique, Chile

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 7, 2013 07:13:31 PM
Location (click for map) -19.617°, -69.299°
Depth 100.1km | 62.2mi
Region 110km NE of Iquique, Chile
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.21

5 – 89km NNE of Hihifo, Tonga

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 7, 2013 04:39:50 PM
Location (click for map) -15.1999°, -173.4351°
Depth 10.04km | 6.24mi
Region 89km NNE of Hihifo, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 61, dmin 2.055, rms 1.08

5 – Off the west coast of northern Sumatra

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 7, 2013 02:01:24 PM
Location (click for map) 1.5892°, 92.5949°
Depth 25.99km | 16.15mi
Region Off the west coast of northern Sumatra
Parameters nst, gap 106, dmin 4.987, rms 1.22

5.4 – 205km NW of Saumlaki, Indonesia

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 7, 2013 01:55:50 PM
Location (click for map) -6.4186°, 130.2621°
Depth 120km | 74.56mi
Region 205km NW of Saumlaki, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 17, dmin 1.863, rms 0.94

5.4 – 20km SSW of Champerico, Guatemala

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, September 7, 2013 12:20:39 AM
Location (click for map) 14.136°, -91.997°
Depth 51.8km | 32.19mi
Region 20km SSW of Champerico, Guatemala
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.7

6.4 – 7km SSE of Ciudad Tecun Uman, Guatemala

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Magnitude 6.4 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, September 7, 2013 12:13:29 AM
Location (click for map) 14.6056°, -92.1207°
Depth 66km | 41.01mi
Region 7km SSE of Ciudad Tecun Uman, Guatemala
Parameters nst, gap 28, dmin 0.331, rms 0.98

5.9 – 44km ESE of Uyugan, Philippines

Friday, September 6, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, September 6, 2013 11:33:53 AM
Location (click for map) 20.1721°, 122.3193°
Depth 175.23km | 108.88mi
Region 44km ESE of Uyugan, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 2.874, rms 0.75

5.5 – Prince Edward Islands region

Friday, September 6, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwb)
Date and Time Friday, September 6, 2013 02:28:10 AM
Location (click for map) -47.0447°, 33.4751°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Prince Edward Islands region
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 17.556, rms 0.63

5.3 – 108km S of Ialibu, Papua New Guinea

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 5, 2013 03:27:03 PM
Location (click for map) -7.2654°, 144.0324°
Depth 9.63km | 5.98mi
Region 108km S of Ialibu, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 11, dmin 3.754, rms 0.84

5.9 – 50km W of Sardinal, Costa Rica

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, September 5, 2013 12:29:15 PM
Location (click for map) 10.5988°, -86.0997°
Depth 19km | 11.81mi
Region 50km W of Sardinal, Costa Rica
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 1.169, rms 1.43

5.1 – 85km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 5, 2013 10:09:26 AM
Location (click for map) 51.4602°, -174.5367°
Depth 25.16km | 15.63mi
Region 85km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 129, dmin 0.771, rms 0.89

5 – 95km S of Atka, Alaska

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, September 5, 2013 09:34:22 AM
Location (click for map) 51.3515°, -174.4606°
Depth 25.3km | 15.72mi
Region 95km S of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 219, dmin 0.864, rms 1.18

5.6 – 85km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, September 5, 2013 05:43:39 AM
Location (click for map) 51.463°, -174.583°
Depth 20km | 12.43mi
Region 85km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.94

6 – Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, September 5, 2013 04:01:36 AM
Location (click for map) 15.1836°, -45.232°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 14.042, rms 0.8

5 – 93km S of Unalaska, Alaska

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 10:04:05 AM
Location (click for map) 53.0455°, -166.7451°
Depth 10.12km | 6.29mi
Region 93km S of Unalaska, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 106, dmin 0.765, rms 1.01

5.2 – 86km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 06:54:15 AM
Location (click for map) 51.4569°, -174.5651°
Depth 30.88km | 19.19mi
Region 86km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 79, dmin 0.779, rms 0.83

6 – 82km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 06:27:03 AM
Location (click for map) 51.573°, -174.8537°
Depth 17km | 10.56mi
Region 82km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 46, dmin 0.749, rms 1.13

5.7 – 80km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 06:16:49 AM
Location (click for map) 51.5733°, -174.7888°
Depth 21km | 13.05mi
Region 80km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 0.728, rms 1.25

5.2 – 94km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 05:15:52 AM
Location (click for map) 51.4081°, -174.7284°
Depth 11.4km | 7.08mi
Region 94km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 198, dmin , rms 1.12

5.8 – 90km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 04:16:30 AM
Location (click for map) 51.449°, -174.717°
Depth 26.6km | 16.53mi
Region 90km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.29

5 – 25km SE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 02:39:35 AM
Location (click for map) -31.6115°, -178.7318°
Depth 37.32km | 23.19mi
Region 25km SE of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 84, dmin 2.458, rms 1.21

6.5 – 81km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 6.5 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 02:32:30 AM
Location (click for map) 51.5573°, -174.7671°
Depth 20km | 12.43mi
Region 81km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 24, dmin 0.735, rms 1.07

6 – 182km SW of Bella Bella, Canada

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 12:23:11 AM
Location (click for map) 51.1832°, -130.2245°
Depth 9.92km | 6.16mi
Region 182km SW of Bella Bella, Canada
Parameters nst, gap 70, dmin 1.431, rms 0.87

6.5 – Izu Islands, Japan region

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Magnitude 6.5 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, September 4, 2013 12:18:23 AM
Location (click for map) 29.9377°, 138.8325°
Depth 402km | 249.79mi
Region Izu Islands, Japan region
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 3.276, rms 1.02

5.1 – 20km E of Sarangani, Philippines

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 3, 2013 11:46:55 PM
Location (click for map) 5.4195°, 125.6521°
Depth 140.85km | 87.52mi
Region 20km E of Sarangani, Philippines
Parameters nst, gap 52, dmin 1.641, rms 0.86

5.5 – 172km WSW of Bella Bella, Canada

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwr)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 3, 2013 10:29:31 PM
Location (click for map) 51.3277°, -130.2195°
Depth 9.85km | 6.12mi
Region 172km WSW of Bella Bella, Canada
Parameters nst, gap 140, dmin 1.565, rms 1.22

5.1 – 181km WSW of Bella Bella, Canada

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mwr)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 3, 2013 09:25:16 PM
Location (click for map) 51.2548°, -130.2999°
Depth 10.15km | 6.31mi
Region 181km WSW of Bella Bella, Canada
Parameters nst, gap 149, dmin 1.503, rms 1.38

6.1 – 187km WSW of Bella Bella, Canada

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Magnitude 6.1 (mww)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 3, 2013 08:19:06 PM
Location (click for map) 51.244°, -130.3971°
Depth 2.73km | 1.7mi
Region 187km WSW of Bella Bella, Canada
Parameters nst, gap 44, dmin 1.704, rms 0.93

5.3 – South Indian Ocean

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 3, 2013 01:03:53 AM
Location (click for map) -34.0743°, 56.2195°
Depth 12.12km | 7.53mi
Region South Indian Ocean
Parameters nst, gap 36, dmin 12.861, rms 1.2

5.3 – Southwest Indian Ridge

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Tuesday, September 3, 2013 12:41:47 AM
Location (click for map) -33.7837°, 56.0986°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region Southwest Indian Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 37, dmin 12.569, rms 0.92

5 – 32km SSE of Taron, Papua New Guinea

Monday, September 2, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Monday, September 2, 2013 09:00:56 PM
Location (click for map) -4.7493°, 153.1173°
Depth 59.53km | 36.99mi
Region 32km SSE of Taron, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 26, dmin 1.1, rms 1.03

5.9 – 51km SW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

Monday, September 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.9 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, September 2, 2013 04:30:16 AM
Location (click for map) -6.6272°, 155.1351°
Depth 35km | 21.75mi
Region 51km SW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 12, dmin 3.821, rms 1.03

5.7 – 75km SE of Vrangel’, Russia

Monday, September 2, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Monday, September 2, 2013 02:51:13 AM
Location (click for map) 42.1989°, 133.6656°
Depth 445km | 276.51mi
Region 75km SE of Vrangel’, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 25, dmin 2.345, rms 0.74

5.7 – 147km E of Raoul Island, New Zealand

Sunday, September 1, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, September 1, 2013 07:50:39 PM
Location (click for map) -29.0334°, -176.4039°
Depth 10.02km | 6.23mi
Region 147km E of Raoul Island, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 47, dmin 16.483, rms 0.99

6.5 – Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia

Sunday, September 1, 2013


Magnitude 6.5 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, September 1, 2013 11:52:29 AM
Location (click for map) -7.44°, 128.2209°
Depth 112km | 69.59mi
Region Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 11, dmin 3.097, rms 1.12

August 2013

5.2 – 104km SW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 07:01:38 PM
Location (click for map) 51.4499°, -175.1291°
Depth 32.36km | 20.11mi
Region 104km SW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 86, dmin 0.73, rms 0.62

5.2 – 161km NNW of Dobo, Indonesia

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 05:56:55 PM
Location (click for map) -4.3691°, 133.7919°
Depth 7.13km | 4.43mi
Region 161km NNW of Dobo, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 49, dmin 2.108, rms 0.83

5.2 – 108km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 10:06:13 AM
Location (click for map) 51.326°, -174.92°
Depth 5.1km | 3.17mi
Region 108km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.78

5 – 110km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 09:54:12 AM
Location (click for map) 51.288°, -174.833°
Depth 4.4km | 2.73mi
Region 110km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.13

5.2 – 109km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 09:50:51 AM
Location (click for map) 51.294°, -174.82°
Depth 8.5km | 5.28mi
Region 109km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.2

5.2 – 104km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 07:30:26 AM
Location (click for map) 51.3758°, -174.9389°
Depth 23.15km | 14.38mi
Region 104km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 128, dmin 0.866, rms 0.94

5.5 – 110km ESE of Adak, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mwc)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 06:43:54 AM
Location (click for map) 51.3674°, -175.2847°
Depth 25.16km | 15.63mi
Region 110km ESE of Adak, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 71, dmin 1.013, rms 1.49

5.2 – 115km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 06:40:56 AM
Location (click for map) 51.2365°, -174.8239°
Depth 10.34km | 6.42mi
Region 115km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 112, dmin 1.017, rms 0.97

6 – 118km SSW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 6 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 06:38:36 AM
Location (click for map) 51.2381°, -174.9407°
Depth 18km | 11.18mi
Region 118km SSW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 70, dmin 0.968, rms 1.17

5 – 3km SW of Benzilan, China

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 12:27:01 AM
Location (click for map) 28.2199°, 99.3432°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 3km SW of Benzilan, China
Parameters nst, gap 34, dmin 4.329, rms 0.69

5.4 – 108km SW of Atka, Alaska

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 12:07:28 AM
Location (click for map) 51.4137°, -175.1513°
Depth 25.6km | 15.91mi
Region 108km SW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.64

5.6 – 1km WNW of Benzilan, China

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Magnitude 5.6 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, August 31, 2013 12:04:17 AM
Location (click for map) 28.2425°, 99.3502°
Depth 8km | 4.97mi
Region 1km WNW of Benzilan, China
Parameters nst, gap 20, dmin 4.341, rms 0.83

5 – 96km SW of Atka, Alaska

Friday, August 30, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, August 30, 2013 09:55:42 PM
Location (click for map) 51.525°, -175.0765°
Depth 25.41km | 15.79mi
Region 96km SW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 54, dmin 0.835, rms 0.76

5.5 – 109km SW of Atka, Alaska

Friday, August 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, August 30, 2013 04:29:05 PM
Location (click for map) 51.4224°, -175.1775°
Depth 7.3km | 4.54mi
Region 109km SW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.85

7 – 101km SW of Atka, Alaska

Friday, August 30, 2013

Magnitude 7 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, August 30, 2013 04:25:02 PM
Location (click for map) 51.537°, -175.2297°
Depth 29km | 18.02mi
Region 101km SW of Atka, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap 53, dmin 0.624, rms 0.89

5 – 71km S of Port-Vila, Vanuatu

Friday, August 30, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, August 30, 2013 11:35:09 AM
Location (click for map) -18.3656°, 168.2034°
Depth 27.14km | 16.86mi
Region 71km S of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
Parameters nst, gap 83, dmin 3.103, rms 0.6

5.1 – 6km ENE of Ergong, China

Friday, August 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, August 30, 2013 05:27:29 AM
Location (click for map) 43.878°, 87.6328°
Depth 16.4km | 10.19mi
Region 6km ENE of Ergong, China
Parameters nst, gap 41, dmin 0.082, rms 0.79

5.8 – 67km WSW of Rabaul, Papua New Guinea

Friday, August 30, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, August 30, 2013 02:11:02 AM
Location (click for map) -4.4412°, 151.6112°
Depth 203km | 126.14mi
Region 67km WSW of Rabaul, Papua New Guinea
Parameters nst, gap 15, dmin 0.604, rms 0.69

5.7 – 150km NNW of Ndoi Island, Fiji

Thursday, August 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.7 (mww)
Date and Time Thursday, August 29, 2013 01:52:27 PM
Location (click for map) -19.3503°, -179.136°
Depth 662.37km | 411.58mi
Region 150km NNW of Ndoi Island, Fiji
Parameters nst, gap 33, dmin 8.705, rms 0.97

5.1 – 27km E of Akutan, Alaska

Thursday, August 29, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, August 29, 2013 12:54:56 AM
Location (click for map) 54.123°, -165.348°
Depth 108.5km | 67.42mi
Region 27km E of Akutan, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 1.91

5.4 – 68km W of Sungaipenuh, Indonesia

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Magnitude 5.4 (mwc)
Date and Time Wednesday, August 28, 2013 05:43:25 AM
Location (click for map) -2.0273°, 100.7661°
Depth 62.95km | 39.12mi
Region 68km W of Sungaipenuh, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 25, dmin 2.353, rms 0.97

6.2 – 292km NW of Raoul Island, New Zealand

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Magnitude 6.2 (mww)
Date and Time Wednesday, August 28, 2013 02:54:41 AM
Location (click for map) -27.7829°, 179.6335°
Depth 478km | 297.02mi
Region 292km NW of Raoul Island, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 22, dmin 2.592, rms 1.01

5.1 – 86km WSW of Cantwell, Alaska

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (Ml)
Date and Time Tuesday, August 27, 2013 09:41:32 PM
Location (click for map) 63.2076°, -150.6192°
Depth 128.4km | 79.78mi
Region 86km WSW of Cantwell, Alaska
Parameters nst, gap , dmin , rms 0.6

5.2 – 4km W of Benzilan, China

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mwr)
Date and Time Tuesday, August 27, 2013 08:44:53 PM
Location (click for map) 28.239°, 99.3276°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 4km W of Benzilan, China
Parameters nst, gap 32, dmin 4.352, rms 0.97

5.3 – 121km SE of Kuril’sk, Russia

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mb)
Date and Time Tuesday, August 27, 2013 02:25:46 PM
Location (click for map) 44.5106°, 149.0412°
Depth 41.71km | 25.92mi
Region 121km SE of Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 90, dmin 4.644, rms 0.52

5.3 – 136km SSW of Severo-Kuril’sk, Russia

Monday, August 26, 2013

Magnitude 5.3 (mwb)
Date and Time Monday, August 26, 2013 04:58:51 AM
Location (click for map) 49.4932°, 155.6532°
Depth 38km | 23.61mi
Region 136km SSW of Severo-Kuril’sk, Russia
Parameters nst, gap 111, dmin 3.84, rms 0.72

5.8 – Southwest Indian Ridge

Sunday, August 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Sunday, August 25, 2013 04:07:14 PM
Location (click for map) -33.4611°, 57.0446°
Depth 4.73km | 2.94mi
Region Southwest Indian Ridge
Parameters nst, gap 61, dmin 12.297, rms 0.71

5.2 – 154km SSW of Sinabang, Indonesia

Sunday, August 25, 2013

Magnitude 5.2 (mb)
Date and Time Sunday, August 25, 2013 04:00:04 AM
Location (click for map) 1.1821°, 95.8566°
Depth 12.89km | 8.01mi
Region 154km SSW of Sinabang, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 1.722, rms 0.64

5.1 – 51km SSW of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Saturday, August 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Saturday, August 24, 2013 03:47:07 PM
Location (click for map) -31.8429°, -179.1634°
Depth 9.92km | 6.16mi
Region 51km SSW of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 87, dmin 6.075, rms 1.3

5.8 – 134km SSW of `Ohonua, Tonga

Saturday, August 24, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Saturday, August 24, 2013 08:40:28 AM
Location (click for map) -22.5179°, -175.2417°
Depth 5km | 3.11mi
Region 134km SSW of `Ohonua, Tonga
Parameters nst, gap 45, dmin 9.172, rms 0.93

5 – 35km S of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand

Friday, August 23, 2013

Magnitude 5 (mb)
Date and Time Friday, August 23, 2013 12:06:22 PM
Location (click for map) -31.7564°, -178.9098°
Depth 66.44km | 41.28mi
Region 35km S of L’Esperance Rock, New Zealand
Parameters nst, gap 131, dmin 2.642, rms 0.62

5.8 – 41km ENE of Calama, Chile

Friday, August 23, 2013

Magnitude 5.8 (mww)
Date and Time Friday, August 23, 2013 08:34:06 AM
Location (click for map) -22.2741°, -68.5927°
Depth 111km | 68.97mi
Region 41km ENE of Calama, Chile
Parameters nst, gap 35, dmin 0.447, rms 1.13

5.1 – 82km SSW of Pagaralam, Indonesia

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, August 22, 2013 10:37:50 PM
Location (click for map) -4.7331°, 103.0449°
Depth 68.99km | 42.87mi
Region 82km SSW of Pagaralam, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 30, dmin 0.38, rms 0.69

5.1 – 207km SSW of Kangin, Indonesia

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Magnitude 5.1 (mb)
Date and Time Thursday, August 22, 2013 06:58:36 PM
Location (click for map) -10.5342°, 114.3361°
Depth 10km | 6.21mi
Region 207km SSW of Kangin, Indonesia
Parameters nst, gap 40, dmin 2.058, rms 0.81